The Pragmatic Analysis of the Interior Monologue in Layla Al-Atrash’s “ La Toshboh Thatoha”
The present study aims at addressing the issue of self in Layla AlAtrash ‘s ‘La Toshboho Thatoha” through applying a pragmatic analysis of her interior monologue relying on the personal deictic expressions of an Arabic discourse used to understand the authorial intentions of the writer . The pragmatic analysis particularly will shed the lights on how the protagonist of the novel deployed the personal deictic expressions in her interior monologue to represent her love story and how her husband has his own plan and intention of marrying her. In literature, an interior monologue is a type of monologue that exhibits the thoughts, feelings, and associations passing through a character’s mind. In other words, the interior monologue is the expression of a character's thoughts, feelings, and impressions in a narrative. In the selected novel, AlAtrash creatively deployed the personal deictic expressions through employing a unique approach in presenting her novel’s protagonist depending on the interior monologue in which there is one dominant voice, the voice of the narrator ‘the protagonist’ depending on using the singular pronoun (I) was obviously used to represent her issue . The use of (I) leads to the presentation of the narrative in an intimate manner where we hear her voice from her perspectives. Doubtlessly, there are other conversations between the novel’s characters presented by the protagonist within the interior monologue. The researcher will rely on the model of Fillmore (1997) who argued that deixis is the reflection of the relationship between language and context. Deictic expressions fall into the following categories: person deixis, spatial deixis and temporal deixis, consequently, the study aims to analyze the pragmatic features of Arabic narrative discourse used by Layla Alatrash in the selected novel to represent her love story through utilizing the person deictic expressions. The results show that the writer was innovator in deploying the personal deictic expressions to represent the image of women who are utilized because of their heroic ancestors and their magnified attributions.
Keywords: a pragmatic analysis – layla atrash – “la toshbeh thatoha” – interior monologue - personal deictic expressions .
Layla Atrash, the author of half a dozen novels, is a pioneer in portraying the social and humanitarian issues depending on her simple feminist style. In her novels, she strives to reveal the social sufferance and oppression especially in the field of human rights. In the selected novel ‘La Toshboh Thatah’ , Laylal shows high courage, in presenting of regional and religious conflicts in addition to urge the importance of accepting the freedom of difference, and to accept the other. Furthermore, she points to the need for the victory of love over hatred Al-Atrash (2019), Al-trash wrote:
“This novel is a memoir written by the protagonist of her daughter precisely, through her internal dialogue recounted her life from her Childhood and her youth to her failure and its struggle with life and disease.”
La Toshbeh Thatoha tackles a strong love story between a Palestinian merchant (Munthir) and an Afghani doctor (Habeba Al-Ein) that was ended with an alienation .The novelist employed an innovative narrative discourse based on representing immigration, whether it’s being enforced immigration or voluntary one (zedan, 2019). She intends to the describe the immigrants’ suffering, and to document the experiences of immigrants in dislocation through Munthir who has never visited Palestine and the experiences of exile through Habiba Al-EIn and how some Jewish figures played a significant role in both Palestine and Afghanistan to encourage the youth to emigrate .
- THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
There are many papers tackling the the issue of interior monologue . However, few researchers have shown their interest in focusing on that concept linguistically. Depending on a multi-level analysis, the current study provides a linguistic analysis of the narrative discourse used by Layla Al-Atrash in the selected novel ‘la Toshbeh Thatoha’. the novel tackles the issue of women in the exile in which the novelist depends on her interior monologue . Regardless the feminist speech that focuses on the woman’s issue, the researcher tackles the novel from different perspective in which she sheds the lights on dislocation and exile as a phenomenon in this age.
- THE AIMS OF THE STUDY
This study considers the description of specific linguistic features, representing a wide range of lexical, syntactic, social aspects. Therefore, the researcher intends to a- identify ideological a implications by describing the representation of the as represented lexically and syntactically.
b- identify the discourse narrated through the interior monologue by focusing on introducing the concept of the self linguistically.
Therefore, the study considers the description of specific linguistic representing a wide range of lexical, syntactic, figurative and social aspects.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In order to prove her points of views, the researcher intends to answer the following questions
- Does Al-Atrash succeed in deploying the personal deictic expressions through the interior monologue.
- What are the social values conveyed by utilizing the personal deictic expressions in the interior monologue?
The researcher does the pragmatic analysis of the interior monologue taking into consideration the deictic expressions to understand the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. The contextual information of the utterance consists of information about the speaker, the addressee, the time and the place. Through this study, the researchers intend to use a descriptive method depending on Fillmor’s theory of deixis in order to analyze the text of the selected novel.
5.2 Data Collection
The analysis relies on Charless Fillmore’S frame of the deixis (personal deixis ). ). The researcher will investigate how AlAtrash deployed person deictic expressions in her novel pragmatically and what meaning and effect do such deployment of referring expressions help the protagonist “Habieba AlEin” to introduce a perfect image of herself and how she was deceived by Munthir through the interior monologue.
Therefore, the researcher intends to read the whole of the novel “ La Tusbeh Thatuha” in order to investigate the deployment of the person deictic expressions in the interior monologue to represent her love story and how she was deceived by her husband . After that, the researcher will analyze some quotations to support her point of views .
5.3 Key -Terms
There are different definitions of pragmatics in which each linguist defines it from his own concept. The modern usage of pragmatics is attributes to Charless Morris who concerned to the use signs or semiotics in language and defined it as” the relation of signs to interpreters", (levinson, 1983) . In the same context, in his book pragmatics, Levison (1983) claimed that pragmatics should be concerned only with principles of language usage, and have nothing to do with the description of linguistic structure encoded in the structure of a language”. (p. 7) Therefore, pragmatics focus is on studying the relation between language and context.
According to Yule (1996) pragmatics concerns with studying the speaker meaning as communicated as by the speaker and interpreted by the listener or the reader since pragmatics is in spoken and written context. On the other, hand Levison (1983) in his book “pragmatics “stated that pragmatics focuses on studying the relation between language and context as a way to understand the spoken or written speech. The ultimate goal of pragmatics as a subfield of linguistics is the ability of a hearer to a reader to comprehend the intention of a speaker in a specific social situation. In other words, Pragmatics concerns with studying of how the context shapes the meaning in which it focuses on investigating the use of language in any communicative context determined by the conditions of society. Pragmatics concerning with discourse focuses on the meaning in which it obviously is influenced by stylistics and its theories concerning with a speaker.
Albalaki (Al-Balaki, 1990) defined pragmatics as “The study of the used signs by an interlocutor in his communicative process and the factors that affect communication and interaction with others in the utterance of context”. In his book “ the new horizon of the modern linguistic research “,The Arab scholar Mahmoud Nahla claimed that pragmatics is the study of language that mainly has four pillars signs ,presupposition ,speech act and implicature . (Nahala, 2002, p. 13).
Based on the previous definitions, Arabic and English share the same points about pragmatics and its focusing on the context of an utterance .
The linguistic subfields of semantics and pragmatics are both related to the study of meaning. Semantics studies the relation between word meanings. Pragmatics shows that the interpretation of utterances not only depends on linguistic knowledge, but also depends on knowledge about the context of the utterance, knowledge about the status of those involved, such as the social information that is encoded with various expressions regarding the relative social status and familiarity, the intent of the speaker, the place and time of the utterance. Pragmatic awareness is regarded as one of the most challenging aspects of language learning, and it often comes through experience. Levinson (1983) argued that deixis is the reflection of the relationship between language and context and he defined deixis an important field studied in pragmatics, semantics and linguistics. Deixis refers to the phenomenon wherein understanding the meaning of certain words and phrases in an utterance requires contextual information. Words or phrases that require contextual information to convey meaning are deictic.
5.3.3 Deictic expressions
A deictic expression is a word or phrase that point out the different meaning the words have in various situations. Without a pragmatic approach, the interpretation of an utterance would be impossible to understand, therefore deictic expressions are crucial and it involves the relationship between the structure of languages and the contexts in which they are used. Hence, words that are deictic hold a denotational meaning that varies depending on time and/or places, and a fixed semantic meaning (Levinson, 1983).
5.3.4 The Person Deixis
According to Crystal (2008) person pronouns deixis is “a pronominal reference, in which pronoun referring to a noun to serve its function playing a vital role in language .” Pronouns are considered as one of the parts of speech obtaining their meaning from other noun phrases in a sentence. The role of using the personal pronouns is to encode the role of a speaker and his addressee in the context of an utterance .Therefore, they can get their meaning from the noun phrases for which they substitute. Fillmore (1997) stated that person deixis involves an understanding of the ways in which linguistic forms are chosen due to the language user's perception and his awareness of his interlocutor's ability to monitor his postures and movements.
Accordingly. Person deictic expressions focus on encoding of the role of the participants of the speech event . Jesperson (2006, p. 212) classified the pronouns into three classes of personal pronouns the first person (speaker) ,the second person ( The person spoken to ) and the third person (the person or thing spoken of ). In contrast, the Arab grammarians IbenAquil(1988), sibawayiah (1316H)who divided the pronouns into two types separate and attached pronouns .Levinson (1983) divided the person deictic expressions into three fundamental divisions involving both of an interlocutor and his addressee First person deictic expression (I /We) refers to a speaker, both speakers or a group of speakers which it expresses in singular pronouns (I,my ,me,my ,mine, myself) and plural pronouns (we, us, our , ours, ourselves).
Second person deictic expression is a reference to a person or a group of persons who are identified as addressee, such as ) you , yourself, yourselves, your, your).
-Third-person deictic expression is a reference to a referent such as the speaker or addressee who are absent from the context of utterance,)he, she, and they, him, himself, her, herself .
Taking into account the Arabic text, the researcher should be aware of the difference between Arabic and English grammatical system of pronouns in which Arabic grammatical pronouns have separated person pronouns and attached of pronouns.
- ARABIC -ENGLISH PRONOUNS SYSTEM
Pronouns are characterized by being vague or ambiguous whether they belong to the first person or second person or third person. There must be something to disambiguate them or eliminate their vagueness. As for the first person and the second person, they can be identified by the fact that their referents are present at the time of utterance; one is present and speaking and the other is present and addressed by the speaker directly. As for the third person pronoun, its referent is unknown because he is neither present nor witness. Therefore the third person should have something to identify its referent. It should be noted that the interpretation of the third person is different from that of modern linguistics, where the referent is neither the speaker nor the addressee; he may be present or witness but he is not a participant in the speech event. According to depending on the Arabic text , the researcher intends to mention to the differences between Arabic and English pronouns systems in the following chart . The Arabic pronouns systems is divided into two types; separated and attached . However, the researcher takes into consideration the Arabic divisions and intends to mix them to be suitable with the English division of pronouns
Habeba Al-Ein is an Afghanistani girl who lived her childhood in Afghanistan for one of the famous families that have dominated till the coming of Talban, the Islamic party controlling afghnistan for more than 2 decades .After that she lived with her family in the exile . she is still proud of her ancestors although she discovered the truth about the bad deeds of them . habeba AlEin is the main protoganst of the novel who writes her memoris to tell her daughter Mannar about all things especially the truth of her marriage with Munthir ,Mannar’s father . Habeba lost her personality after her encounter with false love and her struggle with cancer. To represent her love story ,she deployed the personal deictic expressions intensively through her interior monologue through writing the memoirs focusing on the first ( I انا -ياء المنكلم -تاء المتكلم ,me= ياء المفعول ,my الملكية )and second deictic expression .( you = انت . ( . The protagonist Habeba Al-Ein innovatively deployed the person deictic expressions to introduce her self through her interior monologue . The interior monologue is used to reveal the thoughts and feelings of the characters, therefore,. Habeba Al-EI invites the readers of her memoirs to delve more with her story through deploying all the types of person pronouns deictic expressions in her interior monologue to discover her thoughts and sympathize with her story. The protagonist relies on using all types of the person deictic expressions in the context of utterance to represent the stages of her story love focusing on the real intention of her husband. She started her story love talking with describing her meeting Munthir coincidently as she thought and her father domination and choosing the field of study for her .
انت صدفتي التي دبرتها وحدك وكنت اعتقد ان شباك القدر نسجت حكاية حب عادية .فتاة شرقية مهاجرة رضخت لارادة ابيها في خيارها الدراسي وشاب طموح يبحث عن فرصة في لندن فالتقينا (p,12)
You are my coincidence that you intentionally planned on your own. I thought that destiny gathered us in an ordinary love story; An Eastern migrant girl who abided by her father's choice of her study field and an ambitious young man seeking life in London, and so we met.
The novelist successfully uses the types of person deictic expressions to introduce her love story through her interior monologue. Relying mainly on the first (We =نحن / us نا المفعول and second person deictic expressions ( you =انت/ your ك المخاطب ) helps Habeba Al-Ein to portray the love story and how her husband planned to meet her because the honorific social and political situation among Afghanistan community. Despite using the interior monologue with complete ignorance of her identity . therefore ,she deletes her personality in front of her father and her love .
لم ابادلك الابتسام وفي تحد واضح وبدا انفعال وانا امط الحروف : اضفت وامي من اشراف العرب من سبط الرسول وصل اجدادها بلادنا في عهد المعتصم فلقبوهم بالشرفاء واحيانا السادة .فاما ابي فسيد ابا عن جد ولا صلة له بالعرب (p,17)
I did not smile back at you, and in a challenging way, seemed to be emotional, I added elongating my words; " My mother is a nobel Arab woman who is descended from Mohammed's (PBUH) lineage. Her anscestors had arrived in our country in Al-Motasim's reign and were labelled " The Nobels" and sometimes " The Masters". But my father was born a master, though he is not related to the Arab.
Habeba Al-Ein is proud of the origin of her family and her ancestor and consider her husband carefully sought to reach her due to her ancestors. She depends on deploying the first and second deictic expressions to support her point of u. She relies on first person deictic expressions (I = انا / تاء المتكلم ) . moreover, she uses the third person (her=ها , them =هم and he = هو ) as a reference to her mother’s attribution to the prohret Muhammed in order to show the majesty of her ancestors and origin.
كانك كنت تعرف ولم تسالني .عن عائلتي .قلت بينما تستعد للسفر الي بلادك انك جئت لعيادة مستر جونسون من اجلي ثم عرفت بعد انفصالنا ان قريبة لك وزميلة دراسة لي نصحتك بمستر جونسون لعلاج الحساسية وانها حذرتك من التعامل مع دكتورة افغانية مهاجرة تتصرف كاميرة لاجئة متعالية تتفاخر باصلها وما حققت عائلتها
It seemed as if you had already known about my family. You said as you were readying yourself for getting back to your country that you had come to Mr. Johnson's clinic just to see me. Then, after we broke up, I knew that you had been advised by study mate of mine, who, I hasten to add, is one of your relatives to go to Mr. Johnson for allergy treatment, and that she warned you against dealing with a migrant Afghan doctor who behaves as a fugitive princess who is always boasting about her lineage and her family's achievements.
Obviously, the protagonist declares how Munthir arranged their meeting in which Habeba employed the person pronoun deictic expressions intensively focusing on her husband who is appealing for her for family attribution and her father’s political status in Afghanistani community in the exile . The deployment of the second person deictic expressions ( you =ك المخاطب / تاء المخاطب ) to address her husband in her interior monologue without addressing him in a real life . in her monologue , she blamed him through addressing him indirectly in which her weakness by using the third person deictic expressions( she =هي and her =ها )
It was clearly the absence of her identity in front her love story through deploying the first (My = ملكي and me =ياء المفعول )and second deictic expressions( you = كاف المخاطب and your =ملكك ) its support us with a direct evidence of her suurounding to her love therefore ,she completely ignored the truth and left herself to be under the dominance .
غشاوة حبي لك اعمتني في البداية عن اكتشاف ان مضلحتك تقود خطوك (25)
I was blinded by my deep love for you that I, initially, didn't notice that your own benefit was your main priority.
Layla Al-Atrash employed the person deictic expressions in the interior monologue to attact two important things ; the dominance of her father and the utilize of his political situation. Habeba Al_Ein was a victim of her feelings and kindness and she is completely lost and destroyed because of her illness and her false love . she resists hard all the difficulties that surrounded her and overcomes her illness with her daughter’ support . she ended her memoirs with
النجاح ارادة قاومت المرض ومازالت (p,232)
Success is a determination , I still resist my illness.
The end of Habeba Al-Ein’s story was motivated and conveyed a message for every one to resist all the surrounding circumstance. The implied message is to not surrender to any obstacles that affect our life .
The novelist relies on her interior monologue which the reader ought to listen to one voice; the voice of the protagonist “Habeba Al-Ein “who deployed intensively the first and the second person deictic expressions in her interior monologue in order to introduce the false love story and how her husband utilized her attribution . The direct internal monologue that depends on the first-person narrator speaker (I=تاء المتكلم and ياء المتكلم ) and the third person deictic expressions ( You = ك and أًنت ) in which they are the most prominent leading to intimately presenting the narrative style, as well as, we hear the voice of the tortured ego whispering to herself . As previously mentioned, the only sound that was heard in the novel is the voice of the narrator and there was no presence of other voices. She introduces her sufferance of her being utilized by her husband. The researcher states that the internal conflict happens as a result to struggle against her submission to the cultural and social values and she father ‘authority that she faces, the other one was with the external world who forces her as a woman to accept the reality as itself.
Layla AlAtrash is one of the most famous female writers who creatively introduce the issue of women and children. In the novel “La tushbeh thatoha” ,Al-Atrash introduces many issues deserved to be tackled . The novel presents many issues related to women, extremism, displacement that should be taken into account linguistically.
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