Assessment of Extent and Coverage of urban Solid Waste Management Service Delivery in Selected urban Kebeles of Wolaita Sodo Town, Ethiopia

London Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Mefekir Woldegebriel /Birhanu Girma , NA
Classification: For code: 900401
Keywords: Solid waste, solid waste collection, Solid waste generation Solid waste management.
Language: English

The general objective of the study is also to assess the extent and coverage of urban solid waste management (SWM) service delivery in selected urban kebeles of wolaita sodo town. de the role of educational level, income level and occupation on SWM in the selected kebeles; the main factors that affect the solid waste management in the selected kebeles and to identify the coverage of SWM in the selected kebeles. Quantitative method was used to analysis the gathered  data. Data were gathered using personal observation, interview, questionnaire and focused group discussion. Five kebeles were selected using random sampling as a sample among the total of ten kebeles in the city.each five kebeles were grouped into three clusters and these clusters were further divided into blocks and some blocks again selected using random sampling. And also from these blocks 400 sample households were selected using systematic sampling. The solid waste collection service practiced currently in the study area is unsatisfied. because solid waste collectors Micro and Small Enterprises  (MSEs and wolaita sodo town) are not equipped well in equipment and facilities. There was also delay in time when solid waste containers are picked up to disposal areas than containers become full. With regard to containers distribution, there is uneven distribution of containers in each selected kebeles. In relation with payment, no sample households pay to the government. Especially those who are provided solid waste collection service by governments. To deliver better solid waste collection service to the people, there is shortage of budget in the administrative region of the city. In this study the relation between educational level and income level was analyzed to know the relationship between them.


 Assessment of Extent and Coverage of Urban Solid Waste Management Service Delivery in Selected Urban Kebeles of Wolaita Sodo Town, Ethiopia

Mefekir Woldegbrielα & Birhanu  Girma σ 



The general objective of the study is also to assess the extent and coverage of urban SWM service delivery in selected urban kebeles of  wolaita sodo town. The role of educational, income and occupation on Solid waste management  in the selected kebeles; the main factors that affect the solid waste management in the selected kebeles. The Quantitative method was used to analysis the gathered data. Personal observation, interview, and questionnaire and focus group’s discussion. Five kebeles were selected using random sampling as a sample among the total of ten kebeles in the town .Each five kebeles were grouped into three clusters and these clusters were further divided into blocks and some blocks again selected using random sampling. And also from these blocks 400 sample households were selected using systematic sampling. The solid waste collection service practiced currently in the study area is unsatisfied .because solid waste collectors are not equipped well and lack of  facilities. There was also delay in time when solid waste containers are picked up to disposal areas than containers become full. With regard to containers distribution, there is uneven distribution of containers in each selected kebeles. In relation with payment, no sample households pay to the government. Especially those who are provided solid waste collection service by governments. To deliver better solid waste collection service to the people, there is a shortage of budget in the administrative region of the city. In this study the relation between educational level and income level was analyzed to know the relationship between them.

Keywords: solid waste, solid waste collection, solid waste generation, solid waste management.

Authorα: Wolaita  Sodo University ,Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.

σ: Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


1.1  Background of the Study

It is believed that urbanization provides easy life by creating access to different social services. This is true when cities are properly planned and managed. On the contrary, uncontrolled growth of the cities together with poor urban management system can turn the cities into places of misery by destroying the quality of the environment. Particularly, in relation with solid waste management, the problem is critical throughout the world. According to Asian Productivity Organization (2007) solid-waste management solid waste management is a major challenge in urban areas throughout the world. Without an effective and efficient solid waste management program, the waste generated from various human activities, both industrial and domestic, can result in health hazards and have a negative impact on the environment. It has become a major consequence of development and modernization, yet some of the greatest challenges to its management are felt mostly in the developing countries.

In relation with solid waste management in Africa, as different literatures show that the rapid and unprecedented population growth in Africa urban areas remained a serious problem to. Municipalities. According to African Development Bank (2002) most major cities in Africa have an established municipal waste collection system. Collection is carried out by human- and animal-drawn carts, pushcarts, open-back trucks, compactor trucks, and trailers. Collection rates across the continent range from 20 to 80%.Common feature of the municipalities is that they are ineffective, underequipped and poorly maintained, inadequately funded and poorly staffed. Often collection services are limited to high visibility areas, the wealthy, and businesses willing to pay for this service.

Solid waste management is one of the most serious problem in urban areas of Ethiopia. Even in Addis Ababa which is a seat for different organizations of the world, there is critical challenge concerning solid waste management. According to Selamawit, (2006) solid waste management service is one of the basic urban services that have been neglected most in Ethiopia. Even after Addis Ababa was restructured, solid waste management has continued to encounter problems.

1.2 Statement of the problem 

The problems of solid waste management in many developing countries are relatively recent phenomena, and are the outcome of explosive urbanization. In many developing countries, the most important public services providing clean water, energy, shelter, and sanitation services are irregular, inadequate and inefficient, both in their operation and in their geographical coverage. The Municipal solid waste management solid waste management  service is one of indispensable services for the proper functioning of any city. However, inefficient use of resources, lack of appropriate policies, and poor solid waste management systems have worsened the problem of waste in cities in developing countries. The collection coverage is low, irregular and ranges between 40-70%, of the total generated wastes (Yirgalem, 2001).

Similar situation is true in Ethiopia even in the capital city Addis Ababa. According to Selamawit (2006) the ever increasing volume and composition of solid waste in Addis Ababa has become a serious problem that should be given due attention by the residents, environmental organizations and government bodies. Several campaigns, programs and projects have been initiated to alleviate this problem. Nevertheless, their effort failed to yield any sustainable solution to the problem. The major causes are absence of an integrated and sustainable solid waste management system and plan, low capacity of concerned implementing agencies, low awareness level of the community, absence of cost recovery system, lack of coordination among stakeholders as well as the low involvement of the private sector. According to United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), 2008.stated that only 48% of solid waste is collected in Wolaita Sodo town administration. The rest (52%) of the solid waste is improperly handled, collected, transported and disposed. Most of the waste simply disposed and through in openfield, ditches and the near river basin in Wolaita Sodo town.

There has been pilot project study which was carried out in kebele 03, 04 and 09 in City. This study only focused on place where high amount of solid waste was generated, constituents of solid waste, place where this huge solid waste is disposed and finally concludes as the solid waste collection service was unsatisfactory without mentioning the factors or causes for the service being unsatisfactory.

1.3.  Objective of the Study

The general objective of the study is to assess the extent and coverage of urban Solid Waste Management service delivery in selected urban kebeles of Wolaita Sodo town.

The specific objectives of the study are to:

  1. Assess the role of educational level, income level and occupation on Solid Waste Management  in the selected  kebeles;      
  2. Identify the main factors that affect the solid waste management in the selected kebeles

1.4. Research Questions

This study focused on the following questions              

  1. Do educational, income level and occupation have an influence on habit of appropriate       Usage of Solid Waste Management?
  2. What are the main factors that affect the solid waste management in the selected kebeles?

2.1. Conceptual Definition of Solid Waste

Different scholars and organizations have defined waste in different ways in different time. Even thought different definitions are given to ‘waste’ most of the scholars and organizations have agreed as waste means which cannot be used further. The term ‘Waste’ has undergone changes in definition, concept and classification According to Davies (2008) also describes wastes as “unwanted or unusable materials that emanate or generate from numerous sources from industry and agriculture as well as businesses and households and can be liquid, solid or gaseous in nature, and hazardous or non-hazardous depending on its location and concentration”. But the correct definition of waste, may be depend on the existing situation of a particular country is necessary. According to Harrison (1996) in its definition of waste, has used phrases as 'scarp material or other unwanted surplus and any substance which requires to be disposed of as being broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled.

In many countries, solid waste solid waste management is commonly referred to as MSW so as to distinguish it from industrial and special wastes (hazardous wastes). Thus, in a more specific term, the World Health Organization (WHO, 1996) defined SW in its municipality sense to refer to as discarded materials and objects which are originated from domestic, business and industrial sources, and are disposed of in landfills, but does not include industrial hazardous or special wastes. The Municipal solid waste management can also be perceived as a mixture of locally available materials which include food scraps, household cleaning chemical containers, and hazardous household waste such as batteries, and nonhazardous household waste like papers and plastics.

Solid waste is any material which comes from domestic, commercial, and industrial sources arising from human activities which has no value to people who possess it and is discarded as useless. In the early days, waste disposal did not pose difficulty as habitations were sparse and land was plentiful. Waste disposal became problematic with the rise of towns and cities where large numbers of people started to congregate in relatively small areas in pursuit of livelihoods (Shafiul and Mansoor, 2003).

2.2. Constraints of Solid Waste Management

2.2.1. Human and technical factors 

For any sector to achieve the final goal, the quality as well as the quantity of the workers is very important. But what is seen in the reality is that there is lack of human resources in both quality and quantity. Bartone (1995) state that in most developing countries, there typically is a lack of human resources at both the national and local levels with technical expertise necessary for solid waste management planning and operation. Many officers in charge of solid waste management, particularly at the local level, have little or no technical background or training in engineering or management. Another technical constraint in developing countries is the lack of overall plans for solid waste management at the local and national levels. As a result, a solid waste technology is often selected without due consideration to its appropriateness in the overall solid waste management system .

In developing countries human resources for waste management waste management are scarce or, in some cases, totally lacking. Officials without technical training in WM are assigned to handle the complex issues involved, and the basis on which they may then receive technical assistance can therefore also be limited. Peter Schübeler, (1996) stated that the lack of capacity with regard to the human resources available to manage SW is also a reason for the lack of comprehensive Waste management planning in developing countries. Furthermore, the collection and analysis of solid waste data are generally not given sufficient attention. As a result, there are few opportunities for WM administrators to become experts and to formulate and implement WM plans that are tailored to the actual situation in their country. This in turn makes it extremely difficult to license or develop technologies that are best suited to the local conditions. Technical aspects of Municipal solid waste management Municipal solid waste management are concerned with the planning and implementation and maintenance of collection and transfer systems, waste recovery, final disposal and hazardous waste management.

2.2.2. Financial factors

In general, solid waste management is given a very low priority in developing countries, except perhaps in capital and large cities. Because as it is known in developing countries to allocate enough capital for all sectors is one of the major problem .Because most of the developing countries are not well developed economically. As a result, very limited funds are provided to the solid waste management sector by the governments, and the levels of services required for protection of public health and the environment are not attained. According to UNOPS (2007) in developing countries, a chance of the government funding in full for the wastes management is limited. Without financial security no innovative technique is safe and sustainable. Therefore, developing an internal financing mechanism to ensure consistent financing is crucial in the MSW management system to enhance or to solve finance problem. Particularly, the problem is acute at the local government level where the local taxation system is inadequately developed and, therefore, the financial basis for public services, including solid waste management is weak.

2.2.3. Organizational, structural and institutional factors

Several agencies at the national level are usually involved at least partially in solid waste management. However, there are often no clear roles/functions of the various national agencies defined in relation to SWM and also no single agency or committee designated to coordinate their projects and activities. In developing countries like Ethiopia most of the time one sector or agency is assigned to run two or more different departments instead of assigned for one department. This hopefully results in lack of coordination among different sectors. This means that when one agency or sector builds the other sector may destroy. Example, when road construction Authority builds asphalt road, water supply Authority may destroy to expand pipe lines. Palczynski and Scotia (2002) state that the lack of coordination among the relevant agencies often results in different agencies becoming the national counterpart to different external support agencies for different solid waste management collaborative projects without being aware of what other national agencies are doing. This leads to duplication of efforts, wasting of resources, and unsustainability of overall solid waste management programmers. The lack of effective legislation for solid waste management, which is a norm in most developing countries, is partially responsible for the roles/functions of the relevant national agencies not being clearly defined and the lack of coordination among them.

Legislation related to solid waste management in developing countries is usually fragmented, and several laws (e.g., Public Health Act, Local Government Act, Environmental Protection Act, etc.) include some clauses on rules/regulations regarding solid waste management. The rules and regulations are enforced by the different agencies. However, there are often duplication of responsibilities of the agencies involved and gaps/missing elements in the regulatory provisions for the development of effective solid waste management system. It should be also noted that legislation is only effective if it is enforced.

2.2.4. Economic factors

To deliver successful solid waste service or to carry out proper solid waste management, the economic development stage of the particular country is very important. There is a big difference between developing and developed countries in allocating budget for solid waste management. This is surely caused by difference in Economic development. Bartone (1995) state that Economic and industrial developments play key roles in solid waste management system. Obviously, an enhanced economy enables more funds to be allocated for solid waste management, providing a more sustainable financial basis. However, by definition, developing countries have weak economic bases and, hence, insufficient funds for sustainable development of solid waste management system .In developing countries, waste recycling activities are affected by the availability of industry to receive and process recycled materials. For instance, the recycling of waste paper is possible only when there is a paper mill within a distance for which the transportation of waste paper is economical. The weak industry base for recycling activities is a common constraint for the improvement of solid waste management in developing countries.


3.1  Description of the Study Area

3.1.1. Location

Wolaita Sodo town is the capital city of Wolaita zone. It is found 383 km away from Addis Ababa (via-Shashemene), 328 km (via-Hossaina) and 156 km far from Hawassa, SNNPR’s capital. Five major transport routes connect Sodo with the neighbouring zones and regions. These are Alaba- Shashemene (via- Boditi), Hossaina- Butajira- Addis Ababa (via- Areka), Waka- Taracha- Jima- MizanAman and Bonga (via- Bele), Jinka -Arbaminch (via- Tebela) and GoffaSawula (via-Gesuba). Astronomically, Sodo town is located 6˚51’36’’N latitude and 37˚46’51’’ E longitude (Wolaita Zone Finance Economic Development  2015).

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3.2. Research Design

The approach and procedure for data collection applied in the field of the study was quantitative and qualitative approach. The rationale behind to apply the quantitative and Qualitative approach mainly to analysis the relationship between the variables and to explain data collected through

Interviews focus groups’ discussion and Personal observation respectively. In addition to this quantitative data which were collected from sample households through questionnaire were analyzed by using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS).Among nine kebeles five kebeles were selected using random sampling. These five kebeles were clustered in to three and also further grouped in to blocks and from blocks samples were selected. Four kinds of questionnaires were prepared for selected sample households and for interviewees.

3.3. Sources of Data

3.3.1. Primary Data

Primary data is original in character, the researcher produces the data rather than relying on existing data. Even though there are several sources of primary data, the researcher used sample households, head of Wolaita Sodo , member of MSEs, focus groups discussions and personal observation as sources of primary data.

3.3.2. Secondary Data

The researcher used secondary data which has been collected, organized and arranged by someone else. For this thesis the researcher mainly used published documents which are related with solid waste management.

3.4. Sample Size and Sampling Technique

The study area has nine kebeles of these,five kebeles, 02, 04, 07, 08 and 09 were selected as a sample kebeles based on the number of population and the amount of solid waste they generate each day. In the study area (in the selected sample kebeles) the total population is (Central Statistical Agency  2007).The technique of sampling design and sample size was discussed below.

  1. The level of confidence we require concerning the true value of a mean or proportion. This is closely connected with the level of significance for statistical tests, such as a t-test. For example, we can be ‘95% confident’ that the true mean value lies somewhere within a valid 95% confidence interval, and this corresponds to significance testing at the 5% level(P < 0.05) of significance. Likewise, we can be ‘99% confident’ that the true mean value lies somewhere within a valid 99% confidence interval (which is a bit wider), and this corresponds to significance testing at the 1% level (P < 0.01) of significance.
  2. The degree of precision which we can accept.
  3. Calculate, the SE (standard error) is calculated by deciding upon the accuracy level which you require. If, for instance, you wish your survey to produce a very accurate answer with only a small confidence interval, then you might decide that you want to be 95%confident that the mean average figure produced by your survey is no more than plus or minus.

The level of confidence we require 95%

The precision 5%

Calculate the standard error; we divide the confidence interval by 1.96. In this case the standard error is 5/1.96 = 2.55.

Estimate P (the estimated percentage) conducted pilot study indicated that 74% of response rate. The researcher distributed questionnaire for 50 individual’s randomly. Among 50 questionnaires 37(74%) were returned back correctly. The rest or 13(26%) of the questionnaires were not returned back due to different reasons.

Then determine the sample size using the following formula (Fox et al, 2009).

                       N= P (100%-P)

                                  (SE) 2

        N=      74 %( 100%-74%) =   296


We have to add some samples as there is some questionnaires that are not filled by some individuals.

To do that: 74%= 0.74

296/0.74=400=N (total sample population).

Table 2: Summary of the selected household samples from the five kebeles

Kebeke No.

Total household of the sample kebeles

Selected household

for each kebele




















 Source: own compiled (2018)

3.5. Methods of Data Collection

3.5.1. Questionnaires

To collect primary data structured questionnaire was prepared for selected sample house households. Before prepared questionnaire pilot study had been conducted by randomly selecting 50 individuals and feedbacks were given by 37 individual specially as the questionnaire should be prepared by three languages or as data collectors should be prepared. Finally the researcher prepared data collectors who can speak Amharic (National languages of Ethiopia)  and Wolaitage (mother tong  Languages of the research area ) of the study fluently rather than preparing questionnaire in three languages. Lastly, questionnaire was prepared only in Amharic language. Concerning the type of questionnaires both closed (multiple choices) and open (free response from the respondents) ended questionnaires. The secondary data were collected from different books which were written in relation with solid waste and by exploring internet web sites.

3.5.2. Interview

 Interviews were made with head of  Wolaita Sodo town  and with one head and one member of each of the five selected kebeles of Micro and Small Enterprises Totally eleven (one head of Wolaita Sodo town and ten members of  Micro and Small Enterprises. Interview was carried out through structured way by using predetermined questions and recording in order to collect valid information.

3.5.3. Focus group discussion 

Focus groups were those who were selected as a committee to mobilize the community to. Participate in development. Ten focus groups were selected from five selected kebeles. Concerning solid waste management eight questions were discussed by writing down the response of the focus groups.

 3.5.4. Personal observation 

Through personal observation the time when containers become full and picked up, distribution of containers, service given, illegal disposal was collected through personal observation. 

3.6. Method of Data Analysis

In research the evidence collected from different sources through a variety of tools were organized to make it meaningful. The raw data were summarized to single data that best represents and reflects the behavior (knowledge and experience) of the groups from which the data were collected. The collected data were organized, analyzed and interpreted mostly in the form of tables. To test the degree of the relationship between variables the Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation, and coefficients of determinations was computed using the computer SPSS software to show to what extent or degree the two variables vary or collated.


4.1. Responses of Sample Households on Solid Wastes Management

4.1.1. Background of the Sample Households

At the beginning it was proposed to include 400 samples households. However, in the process of only 390 questionnaires were filled and returned on time. The other 10 questionnaires were not returned. Hence, the sample size for this study is 390. Among 390 samples households 60.3% were male headed and 39.7% were female headed.

4.1.2 Sex composition of the respondents

Table  3:  Sex structure of the respondents









Sex is one of the important variables in the demographic and socio-economic studies because many social and economic conditions are a function of sex (Tamirat, 2008).Table above shows that the majority of the respondents of the study area are male.

4.1.3 Marital status

Marital status with the sampled household all human population characteristics on social institution of marriage is highly influenced in the living condition of human being.

Figure 2:  Marital status of the Respondents 

 From the above figure (70.8%) of the respondents   one conclude that the majority of the respondents were married  are married while (2.6%) windowed and the remaining (23%) respondent are single .From this

Figure 3:  Educational status of the respondents

As figure 3 shows that, out of the total sample population,  (2.3%) of the respondents were illiterate, whereas  (9.2%) of the respondents were read and write  . The number of primary school was  (14.7 %). Majorities of the respondents (31.5%) were the diploma holders. Again, (15.4) of the respondents were the BA degree and above holders. As the survey result clearly shows most of the respondents in the study were qualified enough with respect to the educational status .

4.1.2. Amount of solid waste generated at households level

Solid waste generation comes from a variety of sources. Mostly, since solid waste is coming from commercial areas, institutional and household areas, and the generation of solid waste depends on the economic development of the country which in turn results in difference in living standards of the society and also the natural resources of the particular areas. Waste production and composition depend on many factors, such as the stage of development; socio-economic, climatic and geographical conditions; and collection frequency Sharholy et al (2008).To evaluate the highest constituents of sample households’ solid wastes of their houses, they were asked what is their highest constituents of solid wastes in their houses.

                                                                                           Source: Field survey, 2018

Figure 4:  Amount of solid waste generated per day at sample of house hold levels

As the above result shows, among the respondents the majority (36.1%) of them responded that their daily solid waste generation was ranging between 0.1-1kgs daily. On the other hand 31.8%, of the respondents declared that they generate sold wastes ranging to 1.2-1kgs per day. Whereas 25.4% of the sample households forwarded that they generated 2-3kgs per day.   Thus it is conclusive that most households produce 0.1-1kg wastes daily. Only about a quarter of the respondent households generate solid waste above 1kg. When the amount of solid waste generated in wolaita sodo town is compared with many of African cities almost it is similar. As stated in figure  above, more than half of (67.9%) the sample households generate between 0.1-2kgs per day. Similarly, Asomani-Boateng and Haight (1999) stated that the per capita waste generation rate in Africa is ranging between 0.45 – 1.3 kg/capita/day.

The researcher found that as the households’ income increases the amount of solid waste generated also increased. Those households whose per capita income level grouped under low per capita income level most of them generate between 0.1-0.5 kgs per day. Almost all the lower middle per capita income groups generate 1-2kgs per day and the last upper middle income households generate from 2-3kgs of solid waste per day.

                                                                                                                                               Source: Field survey, 2018

Figure 5: Solid waste constituent at sample households

As far as the types of solid waste production concerned, from figure 5, the majority (27.5%) of the respondents have responded most of their household level wastes were residues of vegetation’s , followed by tree leaves and chat wastes that accounts for 19.9% of the responses. Paper and card boards were the third wastes that produced at household levels as it also seen from Table 4 above. In relation with the nature of solid waste composition, there is a significant difference between the waste generated in developed and developing nations. Hoornweg et al (1999) stated that the wastes generated in developed countries are mainly inorganic in nature, whereas organic contents form a large portion of waste in developing countries. It is true, since Ethiopia is part of developing countries, the composition of solid waste generated at sample households all in all is organic. This is true as the researcher confirmed through personal observation, interview made with member of MSEs, head of wolaita sodo town and discussion with focused group showed that the solid wastes generated from households are organic in nature. From this one can predict that, there is huge raw material (organic) to produce compost and energy. To reuse solid waste as compost and energy it needs segregation of solid waste as the source. By doing this, it is possible to reduce the amount of solid waste disposed to landfill and this also can increases the time for landfill to be filled.

And also the respondents were asked under question 20, did you see solid wastes thrown everywhere in the city? And 298 (76.4%) of the respondents declared that they saw solid wastes were thrown everywhere in the city. The remaining 92 (23.6%) of the respondents responded that there was no solid waste everywhere in the city this exactly implies that there was a habit of throwing waste elsewhere in the city.

Figure 6: Solid wastes which are seen more in the city

As it could be noted in Figure 6, (38.7%) of the respondent households responded that the most constituent of solid wastes in the city was plastic (festal). Furthermore, a good number of (24.4%) the respondents forwarded that mostly they saw tree leaves and chat wastes over the field of the city. Hence it is conclusive that most solid waste observed thrown over field in the city were packing materials and vegetation wastes in that it includes chat remain. Here, there is similarity between the solid waste generated at sample households and solid waste which is found everywhere in the city. Except plastic or locally ‘festal’, the other is organic in nature.

                                                                                                         Source: Field survey, 2018

Figure 7:  Sample household’s income level

As figure 7  above shows, among the population under study 27.2% of them have responded that their monthly earning is ranging between 2001-3000 birr monthly. 22.3% of them have responded that they earn between 3001—4000 birr per month.  Only 13.6 % of them have answered that their monthly income was above 4000 birr. Thus it could easily be understandable that almost half (49.5%) of the respondents were included under the category 2001-4000 birr monthly incomes.

4.2. Coverage of Solid waste Collection Service in the selected kebeles

Solid waste management service encompasses the functions of collection, transportation, and finally disposal. The primary target of SWM in any countries is to protect the health of the population, promote environmental quality, develop sustainability, and provide support to economic productivity. To meet these goals, sustainable solid waste management systems must be embraced fully by local authorities in collaboration with both the public and private sectors. But, as it has been written in different literatures, the amount of solid waste collected is far behind the amount of solid waste generated. According to estimates from the World Resources Institute and USAID, many local authorities in developing countries spend over 30% of their budgets on refuse collection and disposal but can only collect at most 50–70% MSW (Matrix, 1993). This implies that almost half of the amount of solid waste generated is left uncontrolled. Since, Ethiopia is one of the developing countries, and similar situation is happened. In addition to some causes unable to recycle solid waste can also increase the amount of solid waste in the city due to this the service given in the city is unsatisfactory. For example, huge amount of paper,’festal’ and plastic bottles generated from different sources can be used as a raw material for paper and plastic shoes factories respectively.

4.2.1. Time Factor for Solid Waste Generation in Wolaita sodo town

Of course various factors influence the quantity of waste being generated. In addition to these various factors the volume of solid waste generate varies from day to day and season to season. According to the interview made with head of Wolaita Sodo town Municipal, Beatification department head, the amount of solid waste generated also shows difference in time. The highest amount of solid waste is generated in weekdays especially in commercial and institutional areas than weekends. This is because a large number of people come to work places and generate wastes. For this reason the rate of generation remains high during the weekdays and decreases during the weekends. Similarly, the quantity of waste generation increases during the holidays. As the response from the interview made with member of MSEs asking about the time when solid waste generation increases, showed that during the Ethiopian holidays the amount of solid waste being generated increases. Because, as it is known during Ethiopian holidays, different things are used for holidays which contribute for high solid waste generation than non holidays. Parallel to this, the respondents also responded that there is variation in the amount of solid waste generation because of seasonal variations.

4.2.3. Lack of materials for solid waste collection

According to the information gained through the interview made with members of MSEs, at the beginning they were established by government under Micro and Small Enterprise Agency. Then after they were given carts (push carts),forks, and spades by government. However, as the members of MSEs responded that except for the first support when they were established there was no any support from government side. Most of the time the members of MSEs have asked to be supported but, they have been told to support themselves. Because they have been paid by their customers. To let them to continue their job they should be supported materially on the side of government. Because, even though there is available man power, unless important equipments are used the desired objectives will not be achieved. According to the response of the leader of MSE of 09 kebele, she got the chance to go to Addis Ababa to share experience with those who came from each regions of Ethiopia. On the occasion some of the cities like Mekele, Hawassa and Addis Ababa were raised as good models. SpeciallyMicroSmall Enterprises (MSEs) in Mekele city, they had been supporting by government and none governmental organizations before they became existed independently support themselves. And now they have their own trucks to collect and dispose solid waste. In Hawassa and Addis Ababa also they have been well organized in equipments. Relative to these three cities, in all things, Micro and Small Enterprises in wolaita sodo town are almost none. In addition to lack of transportation equipment’s, the researcher observed that, while they were collecting solid waste, totally they were exposed to danger. Because during collection and transportation, it was not uncommon to find collectors without appropriate clothing and protective devices (such as shoes, gloves and air masks) required for such activities. As they were asked question through interview in relation with their health, some of them responded that as they have been suffered  from common cold.

4.2.4. Unattractive salary payment

Even though many problems can influence their work, among these their unattractive monthly income is another big problem for their effective work. According to Kironde (1999) employees in the waste sector are poorly paid and have very poor conditions of service which makes many people shun jobs in the sector .Interview was made with them many of them responded that on average they earned 350-500 Birr per month. Amount of money they earn always fluctuate because it depends on the number of their customers. Each household paid on average from 10-15 birr per month for solid waste collection service which is given to them four times per month. From the total amount of money they earned per month, they were forced to save 30% by government. Because of their unattractive salary they earn most of them are not willing to continue their work.  

Based on the information gained from them Micro and Small Enterprises the reasons for their low payment are many. Among these, lack of coordination between Wolaita Sodo town Municipal, Beatification department workers specially the drivers and members of the. Micro and Small Enterprises  Sometimes trucks drivers collected solid waste from Micro and Small Enterprises customers. As a result people preferred to use trucks service than Micro and Small Enterprises. In addition to this customers did not pay to them on time. Repeatedly going and coming to their customers to collect money is another boring job that waste their time. According to the leader of Micro and Small Enterprises of 09 kebele, she raised good experience in Addis Ababa how the members of MSEs have been paid. The amount of money which is paid for solid waste collection service is added on water or electric power price. Then monthly the members are paid from water supply authority or electricity power authority without wastage of their time and energy. This hasn’t been implemented in Wolaita Sodo town .Because of lack of convincing the customers and commitment of the members of Micro and Small Enterprises and administration of the region. All the problems mentioned above have forced some of the members to leave working on solid waste collection service. Since these Micro and Small Enterprises have shared the burden of the government’s solid waste management problem, they should be supported.

4.2.5. Perception of people towards Micro and Small Enterprises of solid waste collection

In addition to personal observation, interviews were made with head of Micro and Small Enterprises, head of  wolaita sodo town beatification department head and focused groups of the selected sample kebeles. Almost all of them responded the same ideas as most people have negative perception towards their job. Sometimes, members of the Micro and Small Enterprises were considered as they collect any kinds of solid waste. Sometimes they were asked to pick up some dead body of domestic animals such as cat, dog and the like by their consumers. Sometimes they are also asked to give them food instead of money. This shows us how much people’s attitude is really negative. According to Hanrahan et al., (2006) in most cultures, there is a negative public perception regarding work which involves the handling of filth. As it could be understood from Table 33 the majority of the members of the MSEs are women. As they responded during interview, specially, many of the women have been challenged by their husbands and children. Because of their working on solid waste, they are considered as they decrease the dignity and acceptance of their husbands and children in the society.

The reason why they are perceived in this way is, those who participate in door to door solid waste collection are those who cannot fit other kinds of jobs, who are economically very poor and illiterate. According to people’s perception, solid waste collection is only deserved to these kinds of people Micro and Small Enterprises To change negative attitude of the people nothing has been done on the government side. The researcher was shown letter from kebele 02 Micro and Small Enterprises which was written to 02 kebele administrations as awareness should be given to the people. But, there was no any response to their question.

As the researcher made interview with head of Wolaita Sodo town Municipal, Beatification department, he responded as awareness wasn’t given to people face to face and also he responded that the reason why awareness could not be given was lack of finance. Because awareness may be given through meeting or media and it needs money. Similarly, in relation to these households were asked whether they were given awareness or not about solid waste management, among households 80.3% of them agreed that as they were not given any awareness. However, insignificant numbers of households (19.7%) were given awareness.

4.3. Factors Determine Solid Waste Management in the Selected kebeles of Wolaita sodo

4.3.1 Community education and participation

Community education plays a great role in developing the community’s interest and participation in Solid waste management . In order to develop community participation, first the community’s interest in solid waste management  must be addressed by providing opportunities for the community to learn about and become involved in the solid waste management  within their community. According to European commission (2003) public awareness can be increased for example by stakeholder participation, public consultation, public awareness and education programme and public awareness campaigns. Increased awareness may cause new demands for improved solid waste collection services. If public is satisfied with service which is delivered to them, there may be a steady increase in willingness to pay for these services. The main objectives of community education and participation are to provide information for the inhabitants, to achieve public support, to build the profile of SWM and to reduce the amounts of waste.

As it could be seen, from sample household’s response, lack of awareness about solid waste management is widespread among the households. In relation to this households were asked whether they were given awareness or not about solid waste management. Among households 80.3% of them agreed that as they were not given any awareness. However, insignificant numbers of households (19.7%) were given awareness. In addition to sample households response, Micro and Small Enterprises, head Wolaita Sodo town Municipal, Beatification department and focused groups agreed that as there was no any meeting or education about awareness. This has a negative impact on solid waste management. Because as it can be seen from Table 24, when the percentage of those who deposed solid waste properly and improperly was compared, 42.3% of the households who deposed solid waste in to improper areas. But the majority of the households (57.7%) disposed in to proper area. Since public participation is a critical ingredient towards the success of any solid waste management system, Wolaita Sodo town Municipal, Beatification department shall undertake some programme to ensure community participation in waste management. For this purpose, regular meetings, media and posters etc shall be arranged collaboration with residents and non-governmental organizations. Different problems were discussed concerning’ Micro and Small Enterprises problems they have faced; among these people’s attitude is the major challenge. So, in order to encourage the member of the Micro and Small Enterprises and to bring better solid waste management there should be community education and participation.

V.    conclusion S  and Recommendation

5.1. Conclusion

It is found that the majority of sample households’ solid waste is organic. So, having huge amount of organic waste, it is possible to produce compost.

The study found that there is/are no available solid waste container/s around sample households. Unavailability of container/s forced the sample households to dispose solid waste into improper areas. This in turn affects the human health and aesthetic value of the environment.

Based on the study, it was found that there was a delay in time when solid waste containers are picked up to disposal areas than containers become full. This caused 60.8% of sample households to dispose solid waste under the containers.

Sold waste collection service delivered by Micro and Small Enterprises and trucks is unsatisfactory. Being the service is unsatisfactory affects ten thousands of taxi drivers and traders along the Ashewa dry river basin.

The study found that there is no single sample households who pay to government for service delivered to them by government trucks. Unable to collect money from service users, can make government to face shortage of budget to allocate for solid waste management.

This study attempted to analyzes the relationship between educational level, income level and solid waste management. It was found that as educational and income level increases, proper solid waste management also increases. So, educational and income level of the sample households have positive role in solid waste management, because they have access to use MSEs and trucks.

With regard to containers distribution, there is uneven distribution of containers in each selected kebeles. This can discourage the sample households to use containers properly or encourage them to dispose solid waste anywhere.

Concerning the law of solid waste, almost all the sample households didn’t know any law in the city. Having lack of knowing about the existed law, sample households dispose solid waste freely without fear of anything. This makes solid waste to be seen everywhere in the city.

Wolaita sodo town carry out other activities in addition to solid waste services. Having more responsibility can cause failure in achieving the final goals.

To eliminate or reduce solid waste collection service being unsatisfactory, the collectors Micro and Small Enterprises Wolaita sodo town must be built in equipment’s and in facilities. Moreover, the negative attitude of the people towards Micro and Small Enterprises has to be avoided by educating and a warning the people and mobilize them to stand on the side of Wolaita Sodo town and Micro and Small Enterprises for better solid waste management.


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