Print this page

Beta Endorphins – Novel Holistic Palliative Approach in Management of Cancer Pain

London Journal of Research in Science: Natural and Formal
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Shrihari T.G , NA
Classification: NA
Keywords: NA
Language: English

Endorphins are endogenous morphine, produced in pituitary gland response to stress. There are three types of endorphins beta endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins binds to mu, kappa, and delta receptors situated on nervous system and immune cells. Beta-endorphins are abundant endorphins has an analgesic activity both in peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. This article highlights about the holistic approach of beta-endorphins in palliative management of cancer pain.

               

Beta Endorphins – Novel Holistic Palliative Approach in Management of Cancer Pain

Shrihari T.G

____________________________________________

ABSTRACT 

Endorphins are endogenous morphine, produced in pituitary gland response to stress. There are three types of endorphins beta endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphins binds to mu, kappa, and delta receptors situated on nervous system and immune cells. Beta-endorphins are abundant endorphins has an analgesic activity both in peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. This article highlights about the holistic approach of beta-endorphins in palliative management of cancer pain.

Author: Assistant Professor, Department of Oral medicine and Oral oncology , Krishna devaraya college of dental sciences and hospital , Bangalore Karnataka, India.

INTRODUCTION

Endorphins are endogenous morphine, neuropeptides produced in pituitary gland response to stress and pain. There are three types of endorphins beta-endorphins, enkephalins, dynorphins binds to µ (mu), K (kappa), δ (delta) receptors situated on nervous system and immune cells. Beta-endorphins are abundant endorphins, potent than morphine, synthesized and stored in the anterior pituitary gland, it is a precursor of POMC (Proopiomelanocortin).Cancer pain is a severe major morbid condition during cancer , after surgery and radiotherapy difficult to manage (1-4,15,16,17).

  1. BETA-ENDORPHINS IN MANAGEMENT OF CANCER PAIN

Most immune cells produce endorphins. In inflammatory state, recruitment of immune cells to the site of inflammation by chemokines produces endorphins. Binding of endorphins to the receptors on peripheral nerves results in inhibition of substance p, a neurotransmitter of pain and inflammation. During stressful conditions such as inflammation endorphin receptors are increased binds abruptly with endorphins. In the PNS (peripheral nervous system) binding of beta-endorphins to the µ receptors situated on peripheral nerves results in inhibition of substance P, a neurotransmitter of pain and inflammation, inhibiting inflammatory mediators involved in pain such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and  IL-6, produce anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, IFN-γ .

In the CNS (Central nervous system) binding of beta-endorphins to the µ (mu) receptors situated on central nervous system results in inhibition of GABA (Gama amino butyric acid) inhibitory neurotransmitter, produce dopamine neuro- transmitter involved in analgesic activity, euphoria,  tranquility of mind (stress buster activity) (5,12,15,16,17).

Endorphins are produced during yoga, pranayama, intense physical exercise creates a psychological relaxed state known as “Runners high”, mindful meditation, music therapy, massage, acupuncture,  Love, tender, care, pranic healing, empathy and sympathy in caring the patient (6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14).

Beta-endorphins helps in holistic palliative approach to cancer without adverse effects and inexpensive.

  1. CONCLUSION

Endorphins are endogenous morphine; neuropeptide’s produced in the pituitary gland. Beta-endorphins are an abundant endorphin, synthesized and stored in the anterior pituitary gland, more potent than morphine. It has got analgesic activity by inhibiting substance p, GABA neurotransmitters of pain and chronic psychological stress. Through understanding  of  beta-endorphins , mechanisms of analgesic actions , dose dependent  duration of action in different  types  of cancer pain needed  for future  palliative management  of  cancer pain.

REFERENCES

  1. Shrihari T.G . Quantum healing approach to new generation of holistic healing. Transl Med 2017;7(3): 198.
  2. Archana S, Deepali V. Endorphins: Endogenous opioid in human cells. World journal of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. 2014;4(1):357-374.
  3.  Zhang , Chang Q. Role of Beta-endorphin in control of  stress and cancer progression in fetal alcohol exposed rats. Thesis (2013).
  4. Shrihari T.G. Endorphins on cancer: A novel  therapeutic approach . J carcinog Mutagen 2017;8:298.
  5. Lennon FE, Moss J, Singleton PA. The µ- Opioid  receptor  in cancer progression : Is there a direct  effect?. Anesthesiology  2012; 116 (4): 940-5.
  6. Arora S, BhattacharJee J. Modulation of immune responses in stress by yoga. Inter J Yoga2008;1:45-55.
  7. Jonsdottir IH. Special feature for the olymphics: Effects of exercise on the immune system. Immunology and cell biology 2000;78:562-570.
  8. Naghmeh HA, Michael M, Amita K H, Nicholas shaw P, Peter J C. Front Biotransformation of beta- endorphin and possible therapeutic – frontiers.. Pharmacol  2014; 19(1): 1-8.
  9. Bardt  J, Dileo C, Grocke D, Magill L. Music interventions for improving  psychological and physical outcomes in cancer patients . Cochrane database syst Rev; 8:2011.
  10. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Bennet JM, Andridge R, Peng J, Shapiro CL, Malarkey WB. Yoga’s impact on inflammation , mood , and fatigue in breast cancer survivors; A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical oncology 2014;32(10):1040-1049.
  11. Nani M, Irwin MR, Chung M, Wang C. The effect of mind –body therapies  on the immune system –Meta analysis. PLos One 2014;9(7):10-24.
  12. Adam SPB, Smith G, Sugai d, Parsa FD,. Understanding endorphins and their  importance in pain management. Hawaii Med J 2010;69(3):70-71.
  13. Fancourt D, Ockelford A, Belai A. The psychoneuroimmunological  effects of  music : A systematic review and a new model. Brain BehavImmun 2014;36:15-26.
  14. Sedlmeir P, Eberth J, Schwar ZM, Zimmermann D, Haarig F, Jaeger S, et al. The psychological effects of meditations: A meta –analysis. Psychol Bull 2012;138:1139-71.
  15. Shrihari T.G. Quantum healing – A novel current concept of holistic healing. International journal of complementary and alternative medicine 2017;10(2):329.
  16. Shrihari T.G. Endorphins- A novel hidden magic holistic healer.Journal of clinical and cellular immunology 2018;9(2):547-552.
  17. Shrihari T.G. Endorphins- A forgotten hidden magic holistic healer : Minireview.



author

For Authors

Author Membership provide access to scientific innovation, next generation tools, access to conferences/seminars
/symposiums/webinars, networking opportunities, and privileged benefits.
Authors may submit research manuscript or paper without being an existing member of LJP. Once a non-member author submits a research paper he/she becomes a part of "Provisional Author Membership".

Know more

institutes

For Institutions

Society flourish when two institutions come together." Organizations, research institutes, and universities can join LJP Subscription membership or privileged "Fellow Membership" membership facilitating researchers to publish their work with us, become peer reviewers and join us on Advisory Board.

Know more

subsribe

For Subscribers

Subscribe to distinguished STM (scientific, technical, and medical) publisher. Subscription membership is available for individuals universities and institutions (print & online). Subscribers can access journals from our libraries, published in different formats like Printed Hardcopy, Interactive PDFs, EPUBs, eBooks, indexable documents and the author managed dynamic live web page articles, LaTeX, PDFs etc.

Know more