Scope of JournalsLondon Journals Press

1.        Classes of computers

1.1.        Analog computer

1.2.        Calculator

1.3.        Desktop computer

1.4.        Desktop replacement computer

1.5.        Digital computer

1.6.        Embedded computer

1.7.        Home computer

1.8.        Laptop

1.9.        Mainframe

1.10.        Minicomputer

1.11.        Microcomputer

1.12.        Personal computer

1.13.        Portable computer

1.14.        Personal digital assistant (aka PDA, or Handheld computer)

1.15.        Programmable logic controller or PLC

1.16.        Server

1.17.        Smartphone

1.18.        Supercomputer

1.19.        Tablet computer

1.20.        Video game console

1.21.        Workstation

2.        Computer Science

2.1.        Subfields

2.1.1.        Mathematical foundations

2.1.1.1.        Game theory

2.1.1.2.        Mathematical logic

2.1.1.3.        Number theory

2.1.1.4.        Discrete mathematics

2.1.1.4.1.        Combinatorics

2.1.1.4.1.1.        Combinatoric problems

2.1.1.4.1.2.        Permutations and combinations

2.1.1.4.1.3.        Combinatorial algorithms

2.1.1.4.1.4.        Generating functions

2.1.1.4.1.5.        Combinatorial optimization

2.1.1.4.1.6.        Combinatorics on words

2.1.1.4.1.7.        Enumeration

2.1.1.4.2.        Graph theory

2.1.1.4.2.1.        Trees

2.1.1.4.2.2.        Hypergraphs

2.1.1.4.2.3.        Random graphs

2.1.1.4.2.4.        Graph coloring

2.1.1.4.2.5.        Paths and connectivity problems

2.1.1.4.2.6.        Graph enumeration

2.1.1.4.2.7.        Matchings and factors

2.1.1.4.2.8.        Graphs and surfaces

2.1.1.4.2.9.        Network flows

2.1.1.4.2.10.        Spectra of graphs

2.1.1.4.2.11.        Extremal graph theory

2.1.1.4.2.12.        Matroids and greedoids

2.1.1.4.2.13.        Graph algorithms

2.1.1.4.2.14.        Approximation algorithms

2.1.1.5.        Probability and statistics

2.1.1.5.1.        Probabilistic representations

2.1.1.5.1.1.        Bayesian networks

2.1.1.5.1.2.        Markov networks

2.1.1.5.1.3.        Factor graphs

2.1.1.5.1.4.        Decision diagrams

2.1.1.5.1.5.        Equational models

2.1.1.5.1.6.        Causal networks

2.1.1.5.1.7.        Stochastic differential equations

2.1.1.5.1.8.        Nonparametric representations

2.1.1.5.1.9.        Kernel density estimators

2.1.1.5.1.10.        Spline models

2.1.1.5.1.11.        Bayesian nonparametric models

2.1.1.5.2.        Probabilistic inference problems

2.1.1.5.2.1.        Maximum likelihood estimation

2.1.1.5.2.2.        Bayesian computation

2.1.1.5.2.3.        Computing most probable explanation

2.1.1.5.2.4.        Hypothesis testing and confidence interval computation

2.1.1.5.2.5.        Density estimation

2.1.1.5.2.6.        Quantile regression

2.1.1.5.2.7.        Max marginal computation

2.1.1.5.3.        Probabilistic reasoning algorithms

2.1.1.5.3.1.        Variable elimination

2.1.1.5.3.2.        Loopy belief propagation

2.1.1.5.3.3.        Variational methods

2.1.1.5.3.4.        Expectation maximization

2.1.1.5.3.5.        Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods

2.1.1.5.3.6.        Gibbs sampling

2.1.1.5.3.7.        Metropolis-Hastings algorithm

2.1.1.5.3.8.        Simulated annealing

2.1.1.5.3.9.        Markov-chain Monte Carlo convergence measures

2.1.1.5.3.10.        Sequential Monte Carlo methods

2.1.1.5.3.11.        Kalman filters and hidden Markov models

2.1.1.5.3.12.        Resampling methods

2.1.1.5.3.13.        Bootstrapping

2.1.1.5.3.14.        Jackknifing

2.1.1.5.3.15.        Random number generation

2.1.1.5.4.        Probabilistic algorithms

2.1.1.5.5.        Statistical paradigms

2.1.1.5.5.1.        Queueing theory

2.1.1.5.5.2.        Contingency table analysis

2.1.1.5.5.3.        Regression analysis

2.1.1.5.5.4.        Robust regression

2.1.1.5.5.5.        Time series analysis

2.1.1.5.5.6.        Survival analysis

2.1.1.5.5.7.        Renewal theory

2.1.1.5.5.8.        Dimensionality reduction

2.1.1.5.5.9.        Cluster analysis

2.1.1.5.5.10.        Statistical graphics

2.1.1.5.5.11.        Exploratory data analysis

2.1.1.5.6.        Stochastic processes

2.1.1.5.6.1.        Markov processes

2.1.1.5.7.        Nonparametric statistics

2.1.1.5.8.        Distribution functions

2.1.1.5.9.        Multivariate statistics

2.1.1.5.9.1.        Mathematical software

2.1.1.5.10.        Solvers

2.1.1.5.11.        Statistical software

2.1.1.5.12.        Mathematical software performance

2.1.1.6.        Information theory

2.1.1.6.1.        Coding theory

2.1.1.7.        Mathematical analysis

2.1.1.7.1.        Numerical analysis

2.1.1.7.1.1.        Computation of transforms

2.1.1.7.1.2.        Computations in finite fields

2.1.1.7.1.3.        Computations on matrices

2.1.1.7.1.4.        Computations on polynomials

2.1.1.7.1.4.1.        Gröbner bases and other special bases

2.1.1.7.1.5.        Number-theoretic computations

2.1.1.7.1.6.        Interpolation

2.1.1.7.1.7.        Numerical differentiation

2.1.1.7.1.8.        Interval arithmetic

2.1.1.7.1.9.        Arbitrary-precision arithmetic

2.1.1.7.1.10.        Automatic differentiation

2.1.1.7.1.11.        Mesh generation

2.1.1.7.1.12.        Discretization

2.1.1.7.2.        Mathematical optimization

2.1.1.7.2.1.        Discrete optimization

2.1.1.7.2.1.1.        Network optimization

2.1.1.7.2.2.        Continuous optimization

2.1.1.7.2.2.1.        Linear programming

2.1.1.7.2.2.2.        Semidefinite programming

2.1.1.7.2.2.3.        Convex optimization

2.1.1.7.2.2.4.        Quasiconvex programming and unimodality

2.1.1.7.2.2.5.        Stochastic control and optimization

2.1.1.7.2.2.6.        Quadratic programming

2.1.1.7.2.2.7.        Nonconvex optimization

2.1.1.7.2.2.8.        Mixed discrete-continuous optimization

2.1.1.7.2.2.9.        Submodular optimization and polymatroids

2.1.1.7.2.2.10.        Integer programming

2.1.1.7.2.3.        Differential equations

2.1.1.7.2.3.1.        Ordinary differential equations

2.1.1.7.2.3.2.        Partial differential equations

2.1.1.7.2.3.3.        Differential algebraic equations

2.1.1.7.2.3.4.        Differential variational inequalities

2.1.1.7.2.4.        Calculus

2.1.1.7.2.4.1.        Lambda calculus

2.1.1.7.2.4.2.        Differential calculus

2.1.1.7.2.4.3.        Integral calculus

2.1.1.7.2.5.        Functional analysis

2.1.1.7.2.5.1.        Approximation

2.1.1.7.2.6.        Integral equations

2.1.1.7.2.7.        Nonlinear equations

2.1.1.7.2.8.        Quadrature

2.1.1.7.3.        Continuous mathematics

2.1.1.7.3.1.        Calculus

2.1.1.7.3.1.1.        Lambda calculus

2.1.1.7.3.1.2.        Differential calculus

2.1.1.7.3.1.3.        Integral calculus

2.1.1.7.3.2.        Topology

2.1.1.7.3.2.1.        Point-set topology

2.1.1.7.3.2.2.        Algebraic topology

2.1.1.7.3.2.3.        Geometric topology

2.1.1.7.3.3.        Continuous functions

2.1.1.7.4.        Symbolic and algebraic manipulation

2.1.1.7.4.1.        Symbolic and algebraic algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.1.        Combinatorial algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.2.        Algebraic algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.3.        Nonalgebraic algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.4.        Symbolic calculus algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.5.        Exact arithmetic algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.6.        Hybrid symbolic-numeric methods

2.1.1.7.4.1.7.        Discrete calculus algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.8.        Number theory algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.9.        Equation and inequality solving algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.10.        Linear algebra algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.11.        Theorem proving algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.12.        Boolean algebra algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.1.13.        Optimization algorithms

2.1.1.7.4.2.        Computer algebra systems

2.1.1.7.4.2.1.        Special-purpose algebraic systems

2.1.1.7.4.3.        Representation of mathematical objects

2.1.1.7.4.3.1.        Representation of exact numbers

2.1.1.7.4.3.2.        Representation of mathematical functions

2.1.1.7.4.3.3.        Representation of Boolean functions

2.1.1.7.4.3.4.        Representation of polynomials                                

2.1.2.        Algorithms and data structures

2.1.2.1.        Algorithms – Sequential and parallel computational procedures for solving a wide range of problems.

2.1.2.2.        Data structures – The organization and manipulation of data.

2.1.3.        Artificial intelligence

2.1.3.1.        Artificial intelligence

2.1.3.1.1.        Natural language processing

2.1.3.1.1.1.        Information extraction

2.1.3.1.1.2.        Machine translation

2.1.3.1.1.3.        Discourse, dialogue and pragmatics

2.1.3.1.1.4.        Natural language generation

2.1.3.1.1.5.        Speech recognition

2.1.3.1.1.6.        Lexical semantics

2.1.3.1.1.7.        Phonology / morphology

2.1.3.1.1.8.        Language resources

2.1.3.1.2.        Knowledge representation and reasoning

2.1.3.1.2.1.        Description logics

2.1.3.1.2.2.        Semantic networks

2.1.3.1.2.3.        Nonmonotonic, default reasoning and belief revision

2.1.3.1.2.4.        Probabilistic reasoning

2.1.3.1.2.5.        Vagueness and fuzzy logic

2.1.3.1.2.6.        Causal reasoning and diagnostics

2.1.3.1.2.7.        Temporal reasoning

2.1.3.1.2.8.        Cognitive robotics

2.1.3.1.2.9.        Ontology engineering

2.1.3.1.2.10.        Logic programming and answer set programming

2.1.3.1.2.11.        Spatial and physical reasoning

2.1.3.1.2.12.        Reasoning about belief and knowledge

2.1.3.1.3.        Planning and scheduling

2.1.3.1.3.1.        Planning for deterministic actions

2.1.3.1.3.2.        Planning under uncertainty

2.1.3.1.3.3.        Multi-agent planning

2.1.3.1.3.4.        Planning with abstraction and generalization

2.1.3.1.3.5.        Robotic planning

2.1.3.1.4.        Search methodologies

2.1.3.1.4.1.        Heuristic function construction

2.1.3.1.4.2.        Discrete space search

2.1.3.1.4.3.        Continuous space search

2.1.3.1.4.4.        Randomized search

2.1.3.1.4.5.        Game tree search

2.1.3.1.4.6.        Abstraction and micro-operators

2.1.3.1.4.7.        Search with partial observations

2.1.3.1.5.        Control methods

2.1.3.1.5.1.        Robotic planning

2.1.3.1.5.2.        Computational control theory

2.1.3.1.5.3.        Motion path planning

2.1.3.1.6.        Philosophical/theoretical foundations of artificial intelligence

2.1.3.1.6.1.        Cognitive science

2.1.3.1.6.2.        Theory of mind

2.1.3.1.7.        Distributed artificial intelligence

2.1.3.1.7.1.        Multi-agent systems

2.1.3.1.7.2.        Intelligent agents

2.1.3.1.7.3.        Mobile agents

2.1.3.1.7.4.        Cooperation and coordination

2.1.3.1.8.        Automated reasoning

2.1.3.1.9.        Computer vision

2.1.3.1.9.1.        Computer vision tasks

2.1.3.1.9.1.1.        Biometrics

2.1.3.1.9.1.2.        Scene understanding

2.1.3.1.9.1.3.        Activity recognition and understanding

2.1.3.1.9.1.4.        Video summarization

2.1.3.1.9.1.5.        Visual content-based indexing and retrieval

2.1.3.1.9.1.6.        Visual inspection

2.1.3.1.9.1.7.        Vision for robotics

2.1.3.1.9.1.8.        Scene anomaly detection

2.1.3.1.9.2.        Image and video acquisition

2.1.3.1.9.2.1.        Camera calibration

2.1.3.1.9.2.2.        Epipolar geometry

2.1.3.1.9.2.3.        Computational photography

2.1.3.1.9.2.4.        Hyperspectral imaging

2.1.3.1.9.2.5.        Motion capture

2.1.3.1.9.2.6.        3D imaging

2.1.3.1.9.2.7.        Active vision

2.1.3.1.9.3.        Computer vision representations

2.1.3.1.9.3.1.        Image representations

2.1.3.1.9.3.2.        Shape representations

2.1.3.1.9.3.3.        Appearance and texture representations

2.1.3.1.9.3.4.        Hierarchical representations

2.1.3.1.9.4.        Computer vision problems

2.1.3.1.9.4.1.        Interest point and salient region detections

2.1.3.1.9.4.2.        Image segmentation

2.1.3.1.9.4.3.        Video segmentation

2.1.3.1.9.4.4.        Shape inference

2.1.3.1.9.4.5.        Object detection

2.1.3.1.9.4.6.        Object recognition

2.1.3.1.9.4.7.        Object identification

2.1.3.1.9.4.8.        Tracking

2.1.3.1.9.4.9.        Reconstruction

2.1.3.1.9.4.10.        Matching

2.1.3.1.10.        Soft computing

2.1.3.1.10.1.        Machine learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.        Learning paradigms

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.        Supervised learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.1.        Ranking

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.2.        Learning to rank

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.3.        Supervised learning by classification

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.4.        Supervised learning by regression

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.5.        Structured outputs

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.1.6.        Cost-sensitive learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.        Unsupervised learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.1.        Cluster analysis

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.2.        Anomaly detection

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.3.        Mixture modeling

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.4.        Topic modeling

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.5.        Source separation

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.6.        Motif discovery

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.2.7.        Dimensionality reduction and manifold learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.3.        Reinforcement learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.3.1.        Sequential decision making

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.3.2.        Inverse reinforcement learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.3.3.        Apprenticeship learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.3.4.        Multi-agent reinforcement learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.3.5.        Adversarial learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.4.        Multi-task learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.4.1.        Transfer learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.4.2.        Lifelong machine learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.1.4.3.        Learning under covariate shift

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.        Learning settings

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.1.        Batch learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.2.        Online learning settings

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.3.        Learning from demonstrations

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.4.        Learning from critiques

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.5.        Learning from implicit feedback

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.6.        Active learning settings

2.1.3.1.10.1.2.7.        Semi-supervised learning settings

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.        Machine learning approaches

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.1.        Classification and regression trees

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.2.        Kernel methods

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.2.1.        Support vector machines

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.2.2.        Gaussian processes

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.3.        Neural networks

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.4.        Logical and relational learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.4.1.        Inductive logic learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.4.2.        Statistical relational learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.        Learning in probabilistic graphical models

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.1.        Maximum likelihood modeling

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.2.        Maximum entropy modeling

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.3.        Maximum a posteriori modeling

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.4.        Mixture models

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.5.        Latent variable models

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.5.6.        Bayesian network models

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.6.        Learning linear models

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.6.1.        Perceptron algorithm

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.7.        Factorization methods

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.7.1.        Non-negative matrix factorization

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.7.2.        Factor analysis

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.7.3.        Principal component analysis

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.7.4.        Canonical correlation analysis

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.7.5.        Latent Dirichlet allocation

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.8.        Rule learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.9.        Instance-based learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.10.        Markov decision processes

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.11.        Partially-observable Markov decision processes

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.12.        Stochastic games

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.13.        Learning latent representations

2.1.3.1.10.1.3.13.1.        Deep belief networks

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.        Machine learning algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.1.        Dynamic programming for Markov decision processes

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.1.1.        Value iteration

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.1.2.        Q-learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.1.3.        Policy iteration

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.1.4.        Temporal difference learning

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.1.5.        Approximate dynamic programming methods

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.2.        Ensemble methods

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.2.1.        Boosting

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.2.2.        Bagging

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.3.        Spectral methods

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.4.        Feature selection

2.1.3.1.10.1.4.5.        Regularization

2.1.3.1.10.1.5.        Cross-validation

2.1.3.1.10.2.        Modeling and simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.1.        Model development and analysis

2.1.3.1.10.2.1.1.        Modeling methodologies

2.1.3.1.10.2.1.2.        Model verification and validation

2.1.3.1.10.2.1.3.        Uncertainty quantification

2.1.3.1.10.2.2.        Simulation theory

2.1.3.1.10.2.2.1.        Systems theory

2.1.3.1.10.2.2.2.        Network science

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.        Simulation types and techniques

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.1.        Uncertainty quantification

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.2.        Quantum mechanic simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.3.        Molecular simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.4.        Rare-event simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.5.        Discrete-event simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.6.        Agent / discrete models

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.7.        Distributed simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.8.        Continuous simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.9.        Continuous models

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.10.        Real-time simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.11.        Interactive simulation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.12.        Multiscale systems

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.13.        Massively parallel and high-performance simulations

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.14.        Data assimilation

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.15.        Scientific visualization

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.16.        Visual analytics

2.1.3.1.10.2.3.17.        Simulation by animation

2.1.3.1.10.2.4.        Simulation support systems

2.1.3.1.10.2.4.1.        Simulation environments

2.1.3.1.10.2.4.2.        Simulation languages

2.1.3.1.10.2.4.3.        Simulation tools

2.1.3.1.10.2.5.        Simulation evaluation

2.1.3.1.10.3.        Computer graphics

2.1.3.1.10.3.1.        Animation

2.1.3.1.10.3.1.1.        Motion capture

2.1.3.1.10.3.1.2.        Procedural animation

2.1.3.1.10.3.1.3.        Physical simulation

2.1.3.1.10.3.1.4.        Motion processing

2.1.3.1.10.3.1.5.        Collision detection

2.1.3.1.10.3.2.        Rendering

2.1.3.1.10.3.2.1.        Rasterization

2.1.3.1.10.3.2.2.        Ray tracing

2.1.3.1.10.3.2.3.        Non-photorealistic rendering

2.1.3.1.10.3.2.4.        Reflectance modeling

2.1.3.1.10.3.2.5.        Visibility

2.1.3.1.10.3.3.        Image manipulation

2.1.3.1.10.3.3.1.        Computational photography

2.1.3.1.10.3.3.2.        Image processing

2.1.3.1.10.3.3.3.        Texturing

2.1.3.1.10.3.3.4.        Image-based rendering

2.1.3.1.10.3.3.5.        Antialiasing

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.        Graphics systems and interfaces

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.1.        Graphics processors

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.2.        Graphics input devices

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.3.        Mixed / augmented reality

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.4.        Perception

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.5.        Graphics file formats

2.1.3.1.10.3.4.6.        Virtual reality

2.1.3.1.10.3.5.        Image compression

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.        Shape modeling

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.1.        Mesh models

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.2.        Mesh geometry models

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.3.        Parametric curve and surface models

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.4.        Point-based models

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.5.        Volumetric models

2.1.3.1.10.3.6.6.        Shape analysis

2.1.3.1.10.4.        nbsp;Distributed computing methodologies

2.1.3.1.10.4.1.        Distributed algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.4.1.1.        MapReduce algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.4.1.2.        Self-organization

2.1.3.1.10.4.2.        Distributed programming languages

2.1.3.1.10.5.        Concurrent computing methodologies

2.1.3.1.10.5.1.        Concurrent programming languages

2.1.3.1.10.5.2.        Concurrent algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.6.        Parallel computing methodologies

2.1.3.1.10.6.1.        Parallel algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.6.1.1.        MapReduce algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.6.1.2.        Self-organization

2.1.3.1.10.6.1.3.        Shared memory algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.6.1.4.        Vector / streaming algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.6.1.5.        Massively parallel algorithms

2.1.3.1.10.6.2.        Parallel programming languages        

2.1.3.1.10.7.        Evolutionary computing

2.1.3.1.11.        Natural language processing

2.1.3.1.12.        Robotics

2.1.4.        Communication and security

2.1.4.1.        Networking

2.1.4.2.        Networks

2.1.4.2.1.        Network architectures

2.1.4.2.1.1.        Network design principles

2.1.4.2.1.1.1.        Layering

2.1.4.2.1.1.2.        Naming and addressing

2.1.4.2.1.2.        Programming interfaces

2.1.4.2.2.        Network protocols

2.1.4.2.2.1.        Network protocol design

2.1.4.2.2.2.        Protocol correctness

2.1.4.2.2.2.1.1.        Protocol testing and verification

2.1.4.2.2.2.1.2.        Formal specifications

2.1.4.2.2.3.        Link-layer protocols

2.1.4.2.2.4.        Network layer protocols

2.1.4.2.2.4.1.        Routing protocols

2.1.4.2.2.4.2.        Signaling protocols

2.1.4.2.2.5.        Transport protocols

2.1.4.2.2.6.        Session protocols

2.1.4.2.2.7.        Presentation protocols

2.1.4.2.2.8.        Application layer protocols

2.1.4.2.2.8.1.        Peer-to-peer protocols

2.1.4.2.2.9.        OAM protocols

2.1.4.2.2.9.1.        Time synchronization protocols

2.1.4.2.2.9.2.        Network policy

2.1.4.2.2.10.        Cross-layer protocols

2.1.4.2.2.11.        Network File System (NFS) protocol

2.1.4.2.3.        Network components

2.1.4.2.3.1.        Intermediate nodes

2.1.4.2.3.1.1.        Routers

2.1.4.2.3.1.2.        Bridges and switches

2.1.4.2.3.2.        Physical links

2.1.4.2.3.2.1.        Repeaters

2.1.4.2.3.3.        Middle boxes / network appliances

2.1.4.2.3.4.        End nodes

2.1.4.2.3.4.1.        Network adapters

2.1.4.2.3.4.2.        Network servers

2.1.4.2.3.5.        Wireless access points, base stations and infrastructure

2.1.4.2.3.5.1.        Cognitive radios

2.1.4.2.3.6.        Logical nodes

2.1.4.2.3.6.1.        Network domains

2.1.4.2.4.        Network algorithms

2.1.4.2.4.1.        Data path algorithms

2.1.4.2.4.1.1.        Packet classification

2.1.4.2.4.1.2.        Deep packet inspection

2.1.4.2.4.1.3.        Packet scheduling

2.1.4.2.4.2.        Control path algorithms

2.1.4.2.4.2.1.        Network resources allocation

2.1.4.2.4.2.2.        Network control algorithms

2.1.4.2.4.2.3.        Traffic engineering algorithms

2.1.4.2.4.2.4.        Network design and planning algorithms

2.1.4.2.4.3.        Network economics

2.1.4.2.5.        Network performance evaluation

2.1.4.2.5.1.        Network performance modeling

2.1.4.2.5.2.        Network simulations

2.1.4.2.5.3.        Network experimentation

2.1.4.2.5.4.        Network performance analysis

2.1.4.2.5.5.        Network measurement

2.1.4.2.6.        Network properties

2.1.4.2.6.1.        Network security

2.1.4.2.6.1.1.        Security protocols

2.1.4.2.6.1.2.        Web protocol security

2.1.4.2.6.1.3.        Mobile and wireless security

2.1.4.2.6.1.4.        Denial-of-service attacks

2.1.4.2.6.1.5.        Firewalls

2.1.4.2.6.2.        Network range

2.1.4.2.6.2.1.        Short-range networks

2.1.4.2.6.2.2.        Local area networks

2.1.4.2.6.2.3.        Metropolitan area networks

2.1.4.2.6.2.4.        Wide area networks

2.1.4.2.6.2.5.        Very long-range networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.        Network structure

2.1.4.2.6.3.1.        Topology analysis and generation

2.1.4.2.6.3.2.        Physical topologies

2.1.4.2.6.3.3.        Logical / virtual topologies

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.        Network topology types

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.1.        Point-to-point networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.2.        Bus networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.3.        Star networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.4.        Ring networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.4.1.        Token ring networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.4.2.        Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.4.3.        Mesh networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.4.4.        Wireless mesh networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.4.4.5.        Hybrid networks

2.1.4.2.6.3.5.        Network dynamics

2.1.4.2.6.3.6.        Network reliability

2.1.4.2.6.3.6.1.        Error detection and error correction

2.1.4.2.6.3.7.        Network mobility

2.1.4.2.6.3.8.        Network manageability

2.1.4.2.6.3.9.        Network privacy and anonymity

2.1.4.2.6.4.        Network services

2.1.4.2.6.4.1.        Naming and addressing

2.1.4.2.6.4.2.        Cloud computing

2.1.4.2.6.4.3.        Location based services

2.1.4.2.6.4.4.        Programmable networks

2.1.4.2.6.4.5.        In-network processing

2.1.4.2.6.4.6.        Network management

2.1.4.2.6.4.7.        Network monitoring

2.1.4.2.6.5.        Network types

2.1.4.2.6.5.1.        Network on chip

2.1.4.2.6.5.2.        Home networks

2.1.4.2.6.5.3.        Storage area networks

2.1.4.2.6.5.4.        Data center networks

2.1.4.2.6.5.5.        Wired access networks

2.1.4.2.6.5.6.        Cyber-physical networks

2.1.4.2.6.5.6.1.        Sensor networks

2.1.4.2.6.6.        Mobile networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.        Overlay and other logical network structures

2.1.4.2.6.7.1.1.        Peer-to-peer networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.1.2.        World Wide Web (network structure)

2.1.4.2.6.7.1.3.        Social media networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.1.4.        Online social networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.        Wireless access networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.1.        Wireless Local Area networking

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.1.1.        Computing technology based wireless networking (CbWN)

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.1.2.        Source coding

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.1.3.        Security

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.1.4.        Intelligence

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.1.5.        Software

2.1.4.2.6.7.2.2.        Wireless personal area networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.3.        Ad hoc networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.3.1.        Mobile ad hoc networks

2.1.4.2.6.7.4.        Public Internet

2.1.4.2.6.7.5.        Packet-switching networks

2.1.4.2.7.        Computer security

2.1.4.2.7.1.        Cryptology – cryptography – information theory

2.1.4.2.7.2.        Cracking – demon dialing – Hacking – war dialing – war driving

2.1.4.2.7.3.        Social engineering – Dumpster diving

2.1.4.2.7.4.        Physical security – Black bag job

2.1.4.2.7.5.        Computer insecurity

2.1.4.2.7.6.        Computer surveillance

2.1.4.2.7.7.        Defensive programming

2.1.4.2.7.8.        Malware

2.1.4.2.7.9.        Security engineering

2.1.4.2.7.10.        Cryptography

2.1.4.2.7.10.1.        Key management

2.1.4.2.7.10.2.        Public key (asymmetric) techniques

2.1.4.2.7.10.2.1.        Digital signatures

2.1.4.2.7.10.2.2.        Public key encryption

2.1.4.2.7.10.3.        Symmetric cryptography and hash functions

2.1.4.2.7.10.3.1.        Block and stream ciphers

2.1.4.2.7.10.3.2.        Hash functions and message authentication codes

2.1.4.2.7.10.4.        Cryptanalysis and other attacks

2.1.4.2.7.10.5.        Information-theoretic techniques

2.1.4.2.7.10.6.        Mathematical foundations of cryptography

2.1.4.2.7.11.        Formal methods and theory of security

2.1.4.2.7.11.1.        Trust frameworks

2.1.4.2.7.11.2.        Security requirements

2.1.4.2.7.11.3.        Formal security models

2.1.4.2.7.11.4.        Logic and verification

2.1.4.2.7.12.        Security services

2.1.4.2.7.12.1.        Authentication

2.1.4.2.7.12.1.1.        Biometrics

2.1.4.2.7.12.1.2.        Graphical / visual passwords

2.1.4.2.7.12.1.3.        Multi-factor authentication

2.1.4.2.7.12.2.        Access control

2.1.4.2.7.12.3.        Pseudonymity, anonymity and untraceability

2.1.4.2.7.12.4.        Privacy-preserving protocols

2.1.4.2.7.12.5.        Digital rights management

2.1.4.2.7.12.6.        Authorization

2.1.4.2.7.13.        Intrusion/anomaly detection and malware mitigation

2.1.4.2.7.13.1.        Malware and its mitigation

2.1.4.2.7.13.2.        Intrusion detection systems

2.1.4.2.7.13.3.        Social engineering attacks

2.1.4.2.7.13.3.1.        Spoofing attacks

2.1.4.2.7.13.3.2.        Phishing

2.1.4.2.7.14.        Security in hardware

2.1.4.2.7.14.1.        Tamper-proof and tamper-resistant designs

2.1.4.2.7.14.2.        Embedded systems security

2.1.4.2.7.14.3.        Hardware security implementation

2.1.4.2.7.14.3.1.        Hardware-based security protocols

2.1.4.2.7.14.4.        Hardware attacks and countermeasures

2.1.4.2.7.14.4.1.        Malicious design modifications

2.1.4.2.7.14.4.2.        Side-channel analysis and countermeasures

2.1.4.2.7.14.5.        Hardware reverse engineering

2.1.4.2.7.15.        Systems security

2.1.4.2.7.15.1.        Operating systems security

2.1.4.2.7.15.1.1.1.        Mobile platform security

2.1.4.2.7.15.1.1.2.        Trusted computing

2.1.4.2.7.15.1.1.3.        Virtualization and security

2.1.4.2.7.15.2.        Browser security

2.1.4.2.7.15.3.        Distributed systems security

2.1.4.2.7.15.4.        Information flow control

2.1.4.2.7.15.5.        Denial-of-service attacks

2.1.4.2.7.15.6.        Firewalls

2.1.4.2.7.15.7.        Vulnerability management

2.1.4.2.7.15.7.1.        Penetration testing

2.1.4.2.7.15.7.2.        Vulnerability scanners

2.1.4.2.7.15.8.        File system security

2.1.4.2.7.16.        Network security

2.1.4.2.7.16.1.        Security protocols

2.1.4.2.7.16.2.        Web protocol security

2.1.4.2.7.16.3.        Mobile and wireless security

2.1.4.2.7.16.4.        Denial-of-service attacks

2.1.4.2.7.16.5.        Firewalls

2.1.4.2.7.17.        Database and storage security

2.1.4.2.7.17.1.        Data anonymization and sanitization

2.1.4.2.7.17.2.        Management and querying of encrypted data

2.1.4.2.7.17.3.        Information accountability and usage control

2.1.4.2.7.17.4.        Database activity monitoring

2.1.4.2.7.18.        Software and application security

2.1.4.2.7.18.1.        Software security engineering

2.1.4.2.7.18.2.        Web application security

2.1.4.2.7.18.3.        Social network security and privacy

2.1.4.2.7.18.4.        Domain-specific security and privacy architectures

2.1.4.2.7.18.5.        Software reverse engineering

2.1.4.2.7.19.        Human and societal aspects of security and privacy

2.1.4.2.7.19.1. nbsp;       Economics of security and privacy

2.1.4.2.7.19.2.        Social aspects of security and privacy

2.1.4.2.7.19.3.        Privacy protections

2.1.4.2.7.19.4.        Usability in security and privacy

2.1.5.        Computer architecture

2.1.5.1.        Architectures

2.1.5.1.1.        Serial architectures

2.1.5.1.1.1.        Reduced instruction set computing

2.1.5.1.1.2.        Complex instruction set computing

2.1.5.1.1.3.        Superscalar architectures

2.1.5.1.1.4.        Pipeline computing

2.1.5.1.1.5.        Stack machines

2.1.5.1.2.        Parallel architectures

2.1.5.1.2.1.        Very long instruction word

2.1.5.1.2.2.        Interconnection architectures

2.1.5.1.2.3.        Multiple instruction, multiple data

2.1.5.1.2.4.        Cellular architectures

2.1.5.1.2.5.        Multiple instruction, single data

2.1.5.1.2.6.        Single instruction, multiple data

2.1.5.1.2.7.        Systolic arrays

2.1.5.1.2.8.        Multicore architectures

2.1.5.1.3.        Distributed architectures

2.1.5.1.3.1.        Cloud computing

2.1.5.1.3.2.        Client-server architectures

2.1.5.1.3.3.        n-tier architectures

2.1.5.1.3.4.        Peer-to-peer architectures

2.1.5.1.3.5.        Grid computing

2.1.5.1.4.        Other architectures

2.1.5.1.4.1.        Neural networks

2.1.5.1.4.2.        Reconfigurable computing

2.1.5.1.4.3.        Analog computers

2.1.5.1.4.4.        Data flow architectures

2.1.5.1.4.5.        Heterogeneous (hybrid) systems

2.1.5.1.4.6.        Self-organizing autonomic computing

2.1.5.1.4.7.        Optical computing

2.1.5.1.4.8.        Quantum computing

2.1.5.1.4.9.        Molecular computing

2.1.5.1.4.10.        High-level language architectures

2.1.5.1.4.11.        Special purpose systems

2.1.5.2.        Operating systems

2.1.5.3.        Embedded and cyber-physical systems

2.1.5.3.1.        Sensor networks

2.1.5.3.2.        Robotics

2.1.5.3.2.1.        Robotic components

2.1.5.3.2.2.        Robotic control

2.1.5.3.2.3.        Robotic autonomy

2.1.5.3.2.4.        External interfaces for robotics

2.1.5.3.3.        Sensors and actuators

2.1.5.3.4.        System on a chip

2.1.5.3.5.        Embedded systems

2.1.5.3.5.1.        Firmware

2.1.5.3.5.2.        Embedded hardware

2.1.5.3.5.3.        Embedded software

2.1.5.3.6.        Real-time systems

2.1.5.3.6.1.        Real-time operating systems

2.1.5.3.6.2.        Real-time languages

2.1.5.3.6.3.        Real-time system specification

2.1.5.3.6.4.        Real-time system architecture

2.1.5.3.7.        Dependable and fault-tolerant systems and networks

2.1.5.3.7.1.        Reliability

2.1.5.3.7.2.        Availability

2.1.5.3.7.3.        Maintainability and maintenance

2.1.5.3.7.4.        Processors and memory architectures

2.1.5.3.7.5.        Secondary storage organization

2.1.5.3.7.6.        Redundancy

2.1.5.3.7.7.        Fault-tolerant network topologies

2.1.6.        Computer graphics

2.1.6.1.        Computer graphics

2.1.6.2.        Image processing

2.1.7.        Concurrent, parallel, and distributed systems

2.1.7.1.        Parallel computing

2.1.7.2.        Concurrency (computer science)

2.1.7.3.        Distributed computing

2.1.8.        Databases

2.1.8.1.        Relational databases

2.1.8.2.        Data management systems

2.1.8.2.1.        Database design and models

2.1.8.2.1.1.        Relational database model

2.1.8.2.1.2.        Entity relationship models

2.1.8.2.1.3.        Graph-based database models

2.1.8.2.1.3.1.        Hierarchical data models

2.1.8.2.1.3.2.        Network data models

2.1.8.2.1.4.        Physical data models

2.1.8.2.1.5.        Data model extensions

2.1.8.2.1.5.1.        Semi-structured data

2.1.8.2.1.5.2.        Data streams

2.1.8.2.1.5.3.        Data provenance

2.1.8.2.1.5.4.        Incomplete data

2.1.8.2.1.5.5.        Temporal data

2.1.8.2.1.5.6.        Uncertainty

2.1.8.2.1.5.7.        Inconsistent data

2.1.8.2.2.        Data structures

2.1.8.2.2.1.        Data access methods

2.1.8.2.2.1.1.        Multidimensional range search

2.1.8.2.2.1.2.        Data scans

2.1.8.2.2.1.3.        Point lookups

2.1.8.2.2.1.4.        Unidimensional range search

2.1.8.2.2.1.5.        Proximity search

2.1.8.2.2.2.        Data layout

2.1.8.2.2.2.1.        Data compression

2.1.8.2.2.2.2.        Data encryption

2.1.8.2.2.2.3.        Record and block layout

2.1.8.2.3.        Database management system engines

2.1.8.2.3.1.        DBMS engine architectures

2.1.8.2.3.2.        Database query processing

2.1.8.2.3.2.1.        Query optimization

2.1.8.2.3.2.2.        Query operators

2.1.8.2.3.2.3.        Query planning

2.1.8.2.3.2.4.        Join algorithms

2.1.8.2.3.3.        Database transaction processing

2.1.8.2.3.3.1.        Data locking

2.1.8.2.3.3.2.        Transaction logging

2.1.8.2.3.3.3.        Database recovery

2.1.8.2.3.4.        Record and buffer management

2.1.8.2.3.5.        Parallel and distributed DBMSs

2.1.8.2.3.5.1.        Key-value stores

2.1.8.2.3.5.2.        MapReduce-based systems

2.1.8.2.3.5.3.        Relational parallel and distributed DBMSs

2.1.8.2.3.6.        Triggers and rules

2.1.8.2.3.7.        Database views

2.1.8.2.3.8.        Integrity checking

2.1.8.2.3.9.        Distributed database transactions

2.1.8.2.3.9.1.        Distributed data locking

2.1.8.2.3.9.2.        Deadlocks

2.1.8.2.3.9.3.        Distributed database recovery

2.1.8.2.3.10.        Main memory engines

2.1.8.2.3.11.        Online analytical processing engines

2.1.8.2.3.12.        Stream management

2.1.8.2.4.        Query languages

2.1.8.2.4.1.        Relational database query languages

2.1.8.2.4.1.1.        Structured Query Language

2.1.8.2.4.2.        XML query languages

2.1.8.2.4.2.1.        XPath

2.1.8.2.4.2.2.        XQuery

2.1.8.2.4.3.        Query languages for non-relational engines

2.1.8.2.4.3.1.        MapReduce languages

2.1.8.2.4.4.        Call level interfaces

2.1.8.2.5.        Database administration

2.1.8.2.5.1.        Database utilities and tools

2.1.8.2.5.2.        Database performance evaluation

2.1.8.2.5.3.        Autonomous database administration

2.1.8.2.5.4.        Data dictionaries

2.1.8.2.6.        Information integration

2.1.8.2.6.1.        Deduplication

2.1.8.2.6.2.        Extraction, transformation and loading

2.1.8.2.6.3.        Data exchange

2.1.8.2.6.4.        Data cleaning

2.1.8.2.6.5.        Wrappers (data mining)

2.1.8.2.6.6.        Mediators and data integration

2.1.8.2.6.7.        Entity resolution

2.1.8.2.6.8.        Data warehouses

2.1.8.2.6.9.        Federated databases

2.1.8.2.7.        Middleware for databases

2.1.8.2.7.1.        Database web servers

2.1.8.2.7.2.        Application servers

2.1.8.2.7.3.        Object-relational mapping facilities

2.1.8.2.7.4.        Data federation tools

2.1.8.2.7.5.        Data replication tools

2.1.8.2.7.6.        Distributed transaction monitors

2.1.8.2.7.7.        Message queues

2.1.8.2.7.8.        Service buses

2.1.8.2.7.9.        Enterprise application integration tools

2.1.8.2.7.10.        Middleware business process managers

2.1.8.2.8.        Structured Storage

2.1.8.2.9.        Data mining

2.1.9.        Programming languages and compilers

2.1.9.1.        Compiler theory

2.1.9.1.1.        Models of computation

2.1.9.1.1.1.        Computability

2.1.9.1.1.1.1.        Lambda calculus

2.1.9.1.1.1.2.        Turing machines

2.1.9.1.1.1.3.        Recursive functions

2.1.9.1.1.2.        Probabilistic computation

2.1.9.1.1.3.        Quantum computation theory

2.1.9.1.1.3.1.        Quantum complexity theory

2.1.9.1.1.3.2.        Quantum communication complexity

2.1.9.1.1.3.3.        Quantum query complexity

2.1.9.1.1.3.4.        Quantum information theory

2.1.9.1.1.4.        Interactive computation

2.1.9.1.1.5.        Streaming models

2.1.9.1.1.6.        Concurrency

2.1.9.1.1.6.1.        Parallel computing models

2.1.9.1.1.6.2.        Distributed computing models

2.1.9.1.1.6.3.        Process calculi

2.1.9.1.1.7.        Timed and hybrid models

2.1.9.1.1.8.        Abstract machines

2.1.9.1.2.        Formal languages and automata theory

2.1.9.1.2.1.        Formalisms

2.1.9.1.2.1.1.        Algebraic language theory

2.1.9.1.2.1.2.        Rewrite systems

2.1.9.1.2.2.        Automata over infinite objects

2.1.9.1.2.3.        Grammars and context-free languages

2.1.9.1.2.4.        Tree languages

2.1.9.1.2.5.        Automata extensions

2.1.9.1.2.5.1.        Transducers

2.1.9.1.2.5.2.        Quantitative automata

2.1.9.1.2.6.        Regular languages

2.1.9.1.3.        Computational complexity and cryptography

2.1.9.1.3.1.        Complexity classes

2.1.9.1.3.2.        Problems, reductions and completeness

2.1.9.1.3.3.        Communication complexity

2.1.9.1.3.4.        Circuit complexity

2.1.9.1.3.5.        Oracles and decision trees

2.1.9.1.3.6.        Algebraic complexity theory

2.1.9.1.3.7.        Quantum complexity theory

2.1.9.1.3.8.        Proof complexity

2.1.9.1.3.9.        Interactive proof systems

2.1.9.1.3.10.        Complexity theory and logic

2.1.9.1.3.11.        Cryptographic primitives

2.1.9.1.3.12.        Cryptographic protocols

2.1.9.1.4.        Logic

2.1.9.1.4.1.        Logic and verification

2.1.9.1.4.2.        Proof theory

2.1.9.1.4.3.        Modal and temporal logics

2.1.9.1.4.4.        Automated reasoning

2.1.9.1.4.5.        Constraint and logic programming

2.1.9.1.4.6.        Constructive mathematics

2.1.9.1.4.7.        Description logics

2.1.9.1.4.8.        Equational logic and rewriting

2.1.9.1.4.9.        Finite Model Theory

2.1.9.1.4.10.        Higher order logic

2.1.9.1.4.11.        Linear logic

2.1.9.1.4.12.        Programming logic

2.1.9.1.4.13.        Abstraction

2.1.9.1.4.14.        Verification by model checking

2.1.9.1.4.15.        Type theory

2.1.9.1.4.16.        Hoare logic

2.1.9.1.4.17.        Separation logic

2.1.9.1.5.        Design and analysis of algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.1.        Graph algorithms analysis

2.1.9.1.5.1.1.        Network flows

2.1.9.1.5.1.2.        Sparsification and spanners

2.1.9.1.5.1.3.        Shortest paths

2.1.9.1.5.1.4.        Dynamic graph algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.2.        Approximation algorithms analysis

2.1.9.1.5.2.1.        Scheduling algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.2.2.        Packing and covering problems

2.1.9.1.5.2.3.        Routing and network design problems

2.1.9.1.5.2.4.        Facility location and clustering

2.1.9.1.5.2.5.        Rounding techniques

2.1.9.1.5.2.6.        Stochastic approximation

2.1.9.1.5.2.7.        Numeric approximation algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.        Mathematical optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.        Discrete optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.        Network optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.1.        Continuous optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.2.        Linear programming

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.3.        Semidefinite programming

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.4.        Convex optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.5.        Quasiconvex programming and unimodality

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.6.        Stochastic control and optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.7.        Quadratic programming

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.1.8.        Nonconvex optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.2.        Mixed discrete-continuous optimization

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.2.1.        Submodular optimization and polymatroids

2.1.9.1.5.3.1.2.2.        Integer programming

2.1.9.1.5.3.2.        Data structures design and analysis

2.1.9.1.5.3.2.1.        Data compression

2.1.9.1.5.3.2.2.        Pattern matching

2.1.9.1.5.3.2.3.        Sorting and searching

2.1.9.1.5.3.2.4.        Predecessor queries

2.1.9.1.5.3.2.5.        Cell probe models and lower bounds

2.1.9.1.5.3.3.        Online algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.3.1.        Online learning algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.3.1.1.        Scheduling algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.3.2.        Caching and paging algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.3.3.        K-server algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.3.4.        Adversary models

2.1.9.1.5.3.4.        Parameterized complexity and exact algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.4.1.        Fixed parameter tractability

2.1.9.1.5.3.4.2.        W hierarchy

2.1.9.1.5.3.5.        Streaming, sublinear and near linear time algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.5.1.        Bloom filters and hashing

2.1.9.1.5.3.5.2.        Sketching and sampling

2.1.9.1.5.3.5.3.        Lower bounds and information complexity

2.1.9.1.5.3.5.4.        Random order and robust communication complexity

2.1.9.1.5.3.5.5.        Nearest neighbor algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.6.        Parallel algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.6.1.        MapReduce algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.6.2.        Self-organization

2.1.9.1.5.3.6.3.        Shared memory algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.6.4.        Vector / streaming algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.6.5.        Massively parallel algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.7.        Distributed algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.7.1.        MapReduce algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.3.7.2.        Self-organization

2.1.9.1.5.3.8.        Algorithm design techniques

2.1.9.1.5.3.8.1.        Backtracking

2.1.9.1.5.3.8.2.        Branch-and-bound

2.1.9.1.5.3.8.3.        Divide and conquer

2.1.9.1.5.3.8.4.        Dynamic programming

2.1.9.1.5.3.8.5.        Preconditioning

2.1.9.1.5.3.9.        Concurrent algorithms

2.1.9.1.5.4.        Randomness, geometry and discrete structures

2.1.9.1.5.4.1.        Pseudorandomness and derandomization

2.1.9.1.5.4.2.        Computational geometry

2.1.9.1.5.4.3.        Generating random combinatorial structures

2.1.9.1.5.4.4.        Random walks and Markov chains

2.1.9.1.5.4.5.        Expander graphs and randomness extractors

2.1.9.1.5.4.6.        Error-correcting codes

2.1.9.1.5.4.7.        Random projections and metric embeddings

2.1.9.1.5.4.8.        Random network models

2.1.9.1.5.5.        Theory and algorithms for application domains

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.        Machine learning theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.1.        Sample complexity and generalization bounds

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.2.        Boolean function learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.3.        Unsupervised learning and clustering

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.4.        Kernel methods

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.4.1.        Support vector machines

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.4.2.        Gaussian processes

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.5.        Boosting

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.6.        Bayesian analysis

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.7.        Inductive inference

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.8.        Online learning theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.9.        Multi-agent learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.10.        Models of learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.11.        Query learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.12.        Structured prediction

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.13.        Reinforcement learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.13.1.        Sequential decision making

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.13.2.        Inverse reinforcement learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.13.3.        Apprenticeship learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.13.4.        Multi-agent reinforcement learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.13.5.        Adversarial learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.14.        Active learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.15.        Semi-supervised learning

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.16.        Markov decision processes

2.1.9.1.5.5.1.17.        Regret bounds

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.        Algorithmic game theory and mechanism design

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.1.        Social networks

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.2.        Algorithmic game theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.3.        Algorithmic mechanism design

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.4.        Solution concepts in game theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.5.        Exact and approximate computation of equilibria

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.6.        Quality of equilibria

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.7.        Convergence and learning in games

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.8.        Market equilibria

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.9.        Computational pricing and auctions

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.10.        Representations of games and their complexity

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.11.        Network games

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.12.        Network formation

2.1.9.1.5.5.2.13.        Computational advertising theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.        Database theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.1.        Data exchange

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.2.        Data provenance

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.3.        Data modeling

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.4.        Database query languages (principles)

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.5.        Database constraints theory

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.6.        Database interoperability

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.7.        Data structures and algorithms for data management

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.8.        Database query processing and optimization (theory)

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.9.        Data integration

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.10.        Logic and databases

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.11.        Theory of database privacy and security

2.1.9.1.5.5.3.12.        Incomplete, inconsistent, and uncertain databases

2.1.9.1.6.        Semantics and reasoning

2.1.9.1.6.1.        Program constructs

2.1.9.1.6.1.1.        Control primitives

2.1.9.1.6.1.2.        Functional constructs

2.1.9.1.6.1.3.        Object oriented constructs

2.1.9.1.6.1.4.        Program schemes

2.1.9.1.6.1.5.        Type structures

2.1.9.1.6.2.        Program semantics

2.1.9.1.6.2.1.        Algebraic semantics

2.1.9.1.6.2.2.        Denotational semantics

2.1.9.1.6.2.3.        Operational semantics

2.1.9.1.6.2.4.        Axiomatic semantics

2.1.9.1.6.2.5.        Action semantics

2.1.9.1.6.2.6.        Categorical semantics

2.1.9.1.6.3.        Program reasoning

2.1.9.1.6.3.1.        Invariants

2.1.9.1.6.3.2.        Program specifications

2.1.9.1.6.3.3.        Pre- and post-conditions

2.1.9.1.6.3.4.        Program verification

2.1.9.1.6.3.5.        Program analysis

2.1.9.1.6.3.6.        Assertions

2.1.9.1.6.3.7.        Parsing

2.1.9.1.6.3.8.        Abstraction

2.1.9.1.7.        Programming language pragmatics

2.1.9.1.8.        Programming language theory

2.1.9.1.9.        Formal semantics

2.1.9.1.10.        Type theory

2.1.10.        Scientific computing

2.1.10.1.        Computational science

2.1.10.2.        Numerical analysis

2.1.10.3.        Symbolic computation

2.1.10.4.        Computational physics

2.1.10.5.        Computational chemistry

2.1.10.6.        Bioinformatics and Computational biology

2.1.10.7.        Computational neuroscience

2.1.11.        Software

2.1.11.1.        Software engineering

2.1.11.1.1.        Formal methods

2.1.11.1.2.        Software engineering

2.1.11.1.2.1.        Software organization and properties

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.        Contextual software domains

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.1.        E-commerce infrastructure

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.2.        Software infrastructure

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.2.1.        Interpreters

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.2.2.        Middleware

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.2.3.        Message oriented middleware

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.2.4.        Reflective middleware

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.2.5.        Embedded middleware

2.1.11.1.2.1.1.3.        Virtual machines

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.        Operating systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.1.        File systems management

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.        Memory management

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.1.        Virtual memory

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.2.        Main memory

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.3.        Allocation / deallocation strategies

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.4.        Garbage collection

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.5.        Distributed memory

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.2.6.        Secondary storage

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.        Process management

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.1.        Scheduling

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.2.        Deadlocks

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.3.        Multithreading

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.4.        Multiprocessing / multiprogramming / multitasking

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.5.        Monitors

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.6.        Mutual exclusion

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.7.        Concurrency control

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.8.        Power management

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.3.9.        Process synchronization

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.4.        Communications management

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.4.1.        Buffering

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.4.2.        Input / output

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.4.3.        Message passing

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.5.        Virtual worlds software

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.5.1.        Interactive games

2.1.11.1.2.1.2.5.2.        Virtual worlds training simulations

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.        Software system structures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.1.        Embedded software

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.        Software architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.1.        n-tier architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.2.        Peer-to-peer architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.3.        Data flow architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.4.        Cooperating communicating processes

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.5.        Layered systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.6.        Publish-subscribe / event-based architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.7.        Electronic blackboards

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.8.        Simulator / interpreter

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.9.        Object oriented architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.10.        Tightly coupled architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.11.        Space-based architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.2.12.        3-tier architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.        Software system models

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.1.        Petri nets

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.2.        State systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.3.        Entity relationship modeling

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.4.        Model-driven software engineering

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.5.        Feature interaction

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.3.6.        Massively parallel systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.4.        Ultra-large-scale systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.5.        Distributed systems organizing principles

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.5.1.        Cloud computing

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.5.2.        Client-server architectures

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.5.3.        Grid computing

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.5.4.        Organizing principles for web applications

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.6.        Real-time systems software

2.1.11.1.2.1.3.7.        Abstraction, modeling and modularity

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.        Software functional properties

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.        Correctness

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.1.        Synchronization

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.2.        Functionality

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.3.        Real-time schedulability

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.4.        Consistency

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.5.        Completeness

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.1.6.        Access protection

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.2.        Formal methods

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.2.1.        Model checking

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.2.2.        Software verification

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.2.3.        Automated static analysis

2.1.11.1.2.1.4.2.4.        Dynamic analysis

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.        Extra-functional properties

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.1.        Interoperability

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.2.        Software performance

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.3.        Software reliability

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.4.        Software fault tolerance

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.4.1.        Checkpoint / restart

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.5.        Software safety

2.1.11.1.2.1.5.6.        Software usability

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.        Software notations and tools

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.        General programming languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.1.        Language types

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.2.        Parallel programming languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.3.        Distributed programming languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.4.        Imperative languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.5.        Object oriented languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.6.        Functional languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.7.        Concurrent programming languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.8.        Constraint and logic languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.9.        Data flow languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.10.        Extensible languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.11.        Assembly languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.12.        Multiparadigm languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.1.13.        Very high level languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.        Language features

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.1.        Abstract data types

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.2.        Polymorphism

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.3.        Inheritance

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.4.        Control structures

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.5.        Data types and structures

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.6.        Classes and objects

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.7.        Modules / packages

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.8.        Constraints

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.9.        Recursion

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.10.        Concurrent programming structures

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.11.        Procedures, functions and subroutines

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.12.        Patterns

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.13.        Coroutines

2.1.11.1.2.1.6.2.14.        Frameworks

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.        Formal language definitions

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.1.1.        Syntax

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.1.2.        Semantics

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.        Compilers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.1.        Interpreters

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.2.        Incremental compilers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.3.        Retargetable compilers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.4.        Just-in-time compilers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.5.        Dynamic compilers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.6.        Translator writing systems and compiler generators

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.7.        Source code generation

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.8.        Runtime environments

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.9.        Preprocessors

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.2.10.        Parsers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.3.        Context specific languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.4.        Markup languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.4.1.        Extensible Markup Language (XML)

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.4.2.        Hypertext languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.5.        Scripting languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.6.        Domain specific languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.7.        Specialized application languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.8.        API languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.9.        Graphical user interface languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.10.        Window managers

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.11.        Command and control languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.12.        Macro languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.13.        Programming by example

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.14.        State based definitions

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.15.        Visual languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.7.16.        Interface definition languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.        System description languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.1.        Design languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.2.        Unified Modeling Language (UML)

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.3.        Architecture description languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.4.        System modeling languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.5.        Orchestration languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.6.        Integration frameworks

2.1.11.1.2.1.8.7.        Specification languages

2.1.11.1.2.1.9.        Development frameworks and environments

2.1.11.1.2.1.9.1.        Object oriented frameworks

2.1.11.1.2.1.9.2.        Software as a service orchestration systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.9.3.        Integrated and visual development environments

2.1.11.1.2.1.9.4.        Application specific development environments

2.1.11.1.2.1.10.        Software configuration management and version control systems

2.1.11.1.2.1.11.        Software libraries and repositories

2.1.11.1.2.1.12.        Software maintenance tools

2.1.11.1.2.2.        Software creation and management

2.1.11.1.2.2.1.        Designing software

2.1.11.1.2.2.1.1.        Requirements analysis

2.1.11.1.2.2.1.2.        Software design engineering

2.1.11.1.2.2.1.3.        Software design tradeoffs

2.1.11.1.2.2.1.4.        Software implementation planning

2.1.11.1.2.2.1.4.1.        Software design techniques

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.        Software development process management

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.        Software development methods

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.1.        Rapid application development

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.2.        Agile software development

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.3.        Capability Maturity Model

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.4.        Waterfall model

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.5.        Spiral model

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.6.        V-model

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.1.7.        Design patterns

2.1.11.1.2.2.2.2.        Risk management

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.        Software development techniques

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.1.        Software prototyping

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.2.        Object oriented development

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.3.        Flowcharts

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.4.        Reusability

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.4.1.        Software product lines

2.1.11.1.2.2.3.5.        Error handling and recovery

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.        Software verification and validation

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.1.        Software prototyping

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.2.        Operational analysis

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.3.        Software defect analysis

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.3.1.        Software testing and debugging

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.4.        Fault tree analysis

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.5.        Process validation

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.5.1.        Walkthroughs

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.5.2.        Pair programming

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.5.3.        Use cases

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.5.4.        Acceptance testing

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.5.5.        Traceability

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.6.        Formal software verification

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.        Empirical software validation

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.1.        Software post-development issues

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.2.        Software reverse engineering

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.3.        Documentation

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.4.        Backup procedures

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.5.        Software evolution

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.6.        Software version control

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.7.        Maintaining software

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.7.8.        System administration

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.8.        Collaboration in software development

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.8.1.        Open source model

2.1.11.1.2.2.4.8.2.        Programming teams

2.1.11.1.2.2.5.        Algorithm design

2.1.11.1.2.2.6.        Computer programming

2.1.11.1.2.2.7.        Human–computer interaction

2.1.11.1.2.2.8.        Reverse engineering

2.1.11.1.3.        Types

2.1.11.1.3.1.        Computer programming

2.1.11.1.3.2.        Computational

2.1.11.1.3.3.        Software patent

2.1.11.1.3.4.        Firmware

2.1.11.1.3.5.        System software

2.1.11.1.3.6.        Device drivers

2.1.11.1.3.7.        Operating systems

2.1.11.1.3.8.        Utilities

2.1.11.1.3.9.        Application Software

2.1.11.1.3.10.        Databases

2.1.11.1.3.11.        Geographic information system

2.1.11.1.3.12.        Spreadsheet

2.1.11.1.3.13.        Word processor

2.1.11.1.3.14.        Compilers

2.1.11.1.4.        Programming Languages

2.1.11.1.4.1.        4th Dimension/4D

2.1.11.1.4.2.        ABAP

2.1.11.1.4.3.        ABC

2.1.11.1.4.4.        ActionScript

2.1.11.1.4.5.        Ada

2.1.11.1.4.6.        Agilent VEE

2.1.11.1.4.7.        Algol

2.1.11.1.4.8.        Alice

2.1.11.1.4.9.        Angelscript

2.1.11.1.4.10.        Apex

2.1.11.1.4.11.        APL

2.1.11.1.4.12.        AppleScript

2.1.11.1.4.13.        Arc

2.1.11.1.4.14.        Arduino

2.1.11.1.4.15.        ASP

2.1.11.1.4.16.        AspectJ

2.1.11.1.4.17.        Assembly

2.1.11.1.4.18.        ATLAS

2.1.11.1.4.19.        Augeas

2.1.11.1.4.20.        AutoHotkey

2.1.11.1.4.21.        AutoIt

2.1.11.1.4.22.        AutoLISP

2.1.11.1.4.23.        Automator

2.1.11.1.4.24.        Avenue

2.1.11.1.4.25.        Awk

2.1.11.1.4.26.        Bash

2.1.11.1.4.27.        (Visual) Basic

2.1.11.1.4.28.        bc

2.1.11.1.4.29.        BCPL

2.1.11.1.4.30.        BETA

2.1.11.1.4.31.        BlitzMax

2.1.11.1.4.32.        Boo

2.1.11.1.4.33.        Bourne Shell

2.1.11.1.4.34.        Bro

2.1.11.1.4.35.        C

2.1.11.1.4.36.        C Shell

2.1.11.1.4.37.        C#

2.1.11.1.4.38.        C++

2.1.11.1.4.39.        C++/CLI

2.1.11.1.4.40.        C-Omega

2.1.11.1.4.41.        Caml

2.1.11.1.4.42.        Ceylon

2.1.11.1.4.43.        CFML

2.1.11.1.4.44.        cg

2.1.11.1.4.45.        Ch

2.1.11.1.4.46.        CHILL

2.1.11.1.4.47.        CIL

2.1.11.1.4.48.        CL (OS/400)

2.1.11.1.4.49.        Clarion

2.1.11.1.4.50.        Clean

2.1.11.1.4.51.        Clipper

2.1.11.1.4.52.        Clojure

2.1.11.1.4.53.        CLU

2.1.11.1.4.54.        COBOL

2.1.11.1.4.55.        Cobra

2.1.11.1.4.56.        CoffeeScript

2.1.11.1.4.57.        ColdFusion

2.1.11.1.4.58.        COMAL

2.1.11.1.4.59.        Common Lisp

2.1.11.1.4.60.        Coq

2.1.11.1.4.61.        cT

2.1.11.1.4.62.        Curl

2.1.11.1.4.63.        D

2.1.11.1.4.64.        Dart

2.1.11.1.4.65.        DCL

2.1.11.1.4.66.        DCPU-16 ASM

2.1.11.1.4.67.        Delphi/Object Pascal

2.1.11.1.4.68.        DiBOL

2.1.11.1.4.69.   nbsp;     Dylan

2.1.11.1.4.70.        E

2.1.11.1.4.71.        eC

2.1.11.1.4.72.        Ecl

2.1.11.1.4.73.        ECMAScript

2.1.11.1.4.74.        EGL

2.1.11.1.4.75.        Eiffel

2.1.11.1.4.76.        Elixir

2.1.11.1.4.77.        Emacs Lisp

2.1.11.1.4.78.        Erlang

2.1.11.1.4.79.        Etoys

2.1.11.1.4.80.        Euphoria

2.1.11.1.4.81.        EXEC

2.1.11.1.4.82.        F#

2.1.11.1.4.83.        Factor

2.1.11.1.4.84.        Falcon

2.1.11.1.4.85.        Fancy

2.1.11.1.4.86.        Fantom

2.1.11.1.4.87.        Felix

2.1.11.1.4.88.        Forth

2.1.11.1.4.89.        Fortran

2.1.11.1.4.90.        Fortress

2.1.11.1.4.91.        (Visual) FoxPro

2.1.11.1.4.92.        Gambas

2.1.11.1.4.93.        GNU Octave

2.1.11.1.4.94.        Go

2.1.11.1.4.95.        Google AppsScript

2.1.11.1.4.96.        Gosu

2.1.11.1.4.97.        Groovy

2.1.11.1.4.98.        Haskell

2.1.11.1.4.99.        haXe

2.1.11.1.4.100.        Heron

2.1.11.1.4.101.        HPL

2.1.11.1.4.102.        HyperTalk

2.1.11.1.4.103.        Icon

2.1.11.1.4.104.        IDL

2.1.11.1.4.105.        Inform

2.1.11.1.4.106.        Informix-4GL

2.1.11.1.4.107.        INTERCAL

2.1.11.1.4.108.        Io

2.1.11.1.4.109.        Ioke

2.1.11.1.4.110.        J

2.1.11.1.4.111.        J#

2.1.11.1.4.112.        JADE

2.1.11.1.4.113.        Java

2.1.11.1.4.114.        Java FX Script

2.1.11.1.4.115.        JavaScript

2.1.11.1.4.116.        JScript

2.1.11.1.4.117.        JScript.NET

2.1.11.1.4.118.        Julia

2.1.11.1.4.119.        Korn Shell

2.1.11.1.4.120.        Kotlin

2.1.11.1.4.121.        LabVIEW

2.1.11.1.4.122.        Ladder Logic

2.1.11.1.4.123.        Lasso

2.1.11.1.4.124.        Limbo

2.1.11.1.4.125.        Lingo

2.1.11.1.4.126.        Lisp

2.1.11.1.4.127.        Logo

2.1.11.1.4.128.        Logtalk

2.1.11.1.4.129.        LotusScript

2.1.11.1.4.130.        LPC

2.1.11.1.4.131.        Lua

2.1.11.1.4.132.        Lustre

2.1.11.1.4.133.        M4

2.1.11.1.4.134.        MAD

2.1.11.1.4.135.        Magic

2.1.11.1.4.136.        Magik

2.1.11.1.4.137.        Malbolge

2.1.11.1.4.138.        MANTIS

2.1.11.1.4.139.        Maple

2.1.11.1.4.140.        Mathematica

2.1.11.1.4.141.        MATLAB

2.1.11.1.4.142.        Max/MSP

2.1.11.1.4.143.        MAXScript

2.1.11.1.4.144.        MEL

2.1.11.1.4.145.        Mercury

2.1.11.1.4.146.        Mirah

2.1.11.1.4.147.        Miva

2.1.11.1.4.148.        ML

2.1.11.1.4.149.        Monkey

2.1.11.1.4.150.        Modula-2

2.1.11.1.4.151.        Modula-3

2.1.11.1.4.152.        MOO

2.1.11.1.4.153.        Moto

2.1.11.1.4.154.        MS-DOS Batch

2.1.11.1.4.155.        MUMPS

2.1.11.1.4.156.        NATURAL

2.1.11.1.4.157.        Nemerle

2.1.11.1.4.158.        Nimrod

2.1.11.1.4.159.        NQC

2.1.11.1.4.160.        NSIS

2.1.11.1.4.161.        Nu

2.1.11.1.4.162.        NXT-G

2.1.11.1.4.163.        Oberon

2.1.11.1.4.164.        Object Rexx

2.1.11.1.4.165.        Objective-C

2.1.11.1.4.166.        Objective-J

2.1.11.1.4.167.        OCaml

2.1.11.1.4.168.        Occam

2.1.11.1.4.169.        ooc

2.1.11.1.4.170.        Opa

2.1.11.1.4.171.        OpenCL

2.1.11.1.4.172.        OpenEdge ABL

2.1.11.1.4.173.        OPL

2.1.11.1.4.174.        Oz

2.1.11.1.4.175.        Paradox

2.1.11.1.4.176.        Parrot

2.1.11.1.4.177.        Pascal

2.1.11.1.4.178.        Perl

2.1.11.1.4.179.        PHP

2.1.11.1.4.180.        Pike

2.1.11.1.4.181.        PILOT

2.1.11.1.4.182.        PL/I

2.1.11.1.4.183.        PL/SQL

2.1.11.1.4.184.        Pliant

2.1.11.1.4.185.        PostScript

2.1.11.1.4.186.        POV-Ray

2.1.11.1.4.187.        PowerBasic

2.1.11.1.4.188.        PowerScript

2.1.11.1.4.189.        PowerShell

2.1.11.1.4.190.        Processing

2.1.11.1.4.191.        Prolog

2.1.11.1.4.192.        Puppet

2.1.11.1.4.193.        Pure Data

2.1.11.1.4.194.        Python

2.1.11.1.4.195.        Q

2.1.11.1.4.196.        R

2.1.11.1.4.197.        Racket

2.1.11.1.4.198.        REALBasic

2.1.11.1.4.199.        REBOL

2.1.11.1.4.200.        Revolution

2.1.11.1.4.201.        REXX

2.1.11.1.4.202.        RPG (OS/400)

2.1.11.1.4.203.        Ruby

2.1.11.1.4.204.        Rust

2.1.11.1.4.205.        S

2.1.11.1.4.206.        S-PLUS

2.1.11.1.4.207.        SAS

2.1.11.1.4.208.        Sather

2.1.11.1.4.209.        Scala

2.1.11.1.4.210.        Scheme

2.1.11.1.4.211.        Scilab

2.1.11.1.4.212.        Scratch

2.1.11.1.4.213.        sed

2.1.11.1.4.214.        Seed7

2.1.11.1.4.215.        Self

2.1.11.1.4.216.        Shell

2.1.11.1.4.217.        SIGNAL

2.1.11.1.4.218.        Simula

2.1.11.1.4.219.        Simulink

2.1.11.1.4.220.        Slate

2.1.11.1.4.221.        Smalltalk

2.1.11.1.4.222.        Smarty

2.1.11.1.4.223.        SPARK

2.1.11.1.4.224.        SPSS

2.1.11.1.4.225.        SQR

2.1.11.1.4.226.        Squeak

2.1.11.1.4.227.        Squirrel

2.1.11.1.4.228.        Standard ML

2.1.11.1.4.229.        Suneido

2.1.11.1.4.230.        SuperCollider

2.1.11.1.4.231.        TACL

2.1.11.1.4.232.        Tcl

2.1.11.1.4.233.        Tex

2.1.11.1.4.234.        thinBasic

2.1.11.1.4.235.        TOM

2.1.11.1.4.236.        Transact-SQL

2.1.11.1.4.237.        Turing

2.1.11.1.4.238.        TypeScript

2.1.11.1.4.239.        Vala/Genie

2.1.11.1.4.240.        VBScript

2.1.11.1.4.241.        Verilog

2.1.11.1.4.242.        VHDL

2.1.11.1.4.243.        VimL

2.1.11.1.4.244.        Visual Basic .NET

2.1.11.1.4.245.        WebDNA

2.1.11.1.4.246.        Whitespace

2.1.11.1.4.247.        X10

2.1.11.1.4.248.        xBase

2.1.11.1.4.249.        XBase++

2.1.11.1.4.250.        Xen

2.1.11.1.4.251.        XPL

2.1.11.1.4.252.        XSLT

2.1.11.1.4.253.        XQuery

2.1.11.1.4.254.        yacc

2.1.11.1.4.255.        Yorick

2.1.11.1.4.256.        Z shell

2.1.11.1.5.        interpreters

2.1.11.1.6.        compilers

2.1.11.1.7.        assemblers

2.1.11.1.8.        Speech recognition

2.1.11.1.9.        Speech synthesis

2.1.11.1.10.        Types of Software

2.1.12.        Business software

2.1.12.1.        Accounting software

2.1.13.        Analytics

2.1.13.1.        Data mining closely related to database

2.1.13.2.        Decision support systems

2.1.14.        Airline reservations

2.1.15.        Banking

2.1.15.1.        Automated teller machines

2.1.15.2.        Cheque processing

2.1.15.3.        Credit cards

2.1.16.        Commerce

2.1.16.1.        Trade

2.1.16.2.        Auctions (e.g. eBay)

2.1.16.3.        Reverse auctions (procurement)

2.1.16.4.        Bar code scanners

2.1.17.        Compilers

2.1.17.1.        Parsers

2.1.17.2.        Compiler optimization

2.1.17.3.        Interpreters

2.1.17.4.        Linkers

2.1.17.5.        Loaders

2.1.18.        Communication

2.1.18.1.        E-mail

2.1.18.2.        Instant messengers

2.1.18.3.        VOIP

2.1.18.4.        Calendars — scheduling and coordinating

2.1.18.5.      nbsp;  Contact managers

2.1.19.        Computer graphics

2.1.19.1.        Animation

2.1.19.2.        Special effects for video and film

2.1.19.3.        Editing

2.1.19.4.        Post-processing

2.1.20.        Cryptography

2.1.21.        Databases

2.1.22.        Embedded systems

2.1.22.1.        Automotive software

2.1.22.2.        Avionics software

2.1.22.3.        Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) software

2.1.22.4.        Medical device software

2.1.22.5.        Telephony

2.1.22.6.        Telemetry

2.1.23.        Engineering

2.1.23.1.        Computer Aided Design (CAD)

2.1.23.2.        Electronic Design Automation (EDA)

2.1.23.3.        Numerical Analysis

2.1.23.4.        Simulation

2.1.24.        File

2.1.24.1.        FTP

2.1.24.2.        File sharing

2.1.24.3.        File synchronization

2.1.25.        Finance

2.1.25.1.        Bond market

2.1.25.2.        Futures market

2.1.25.3.        Stock market

2.1.26.        Games

2.1.26.1.        Poker

2.1.26.2.        Multiuser Dungeons

2.1.26.3.        Video games

2.1.27.        Information systems, support almost every field

2.1.27.1.        LIS Management of laboratory data

2.1.27.2.        MIS Management of financial and personnel data

2.1.28.        Logistics

2.1.28.1.        Supply chain management

2.1.29.        Manufacturing

2.1.29.1.        Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

2.1.29.2.        Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

2.1.30.        Music

2.1.30.1.        Music sequencers

2.1.30.2.        Sound effects

2.1.30.3.        Music synthesis

2.1.31.        Network Management

2.1.31.1.        Network management system

2.1.31.2.        Element Management System

2.1.31.3.        Operations Support System

2.1.31.4.        Business Support Systems

2.1.32.        Networks and Internet

2.1.32.1.        Domain Name System

2.1.32.2.        Protocols

2.1.32.3.        Routers

2.1.33.        Office suites

2.1.33.1.        Word processors

2.1.33.2.        Spreadsheets

2.1.33.3.        Presentations

2.1.34.        Operating systems

2.1.34.1.        Embedded

2.1.34.2.        Graphical

2.1.34.3.        Multitasking

2.1.34.4.        Real-time

2.1.35.        Robotics

2.1.36.        Signal processing, encoding and interpreting signals

2.1.36.1.        Image processing, encoding and interpreting visual information

2.1.36.2.        Speech processing

2.1.36.3.        Text recognition

2.1.36.4.        Handwriting recognition

2.1.37.        Simulation, supports almost every field.

2.1.37.1.        Engineering, A software simulation can be cheaper to build and more flexible to change than a physical engineering model.

2.1.37.2.        Sciences

2.1.38.        Sciences

2.1.38.1.        Genomics

2.1.39.        Traffic Control

2.1.39.1.        Air traffic control

2.1.39.2.        Ship traffic control

2.1.39.3.        Road traffic control

2.1.40.        Training

2.1.40.1.        Drill

2.1.40.2.        Simulation

2.1.40.3.        Testing

2.1.41.        Visualization, supports almost every field

2.1.41.1.        Architecture

2.1.41.2.        Engineering

2.1.41.3.        Sciences

2.1.42.        Voting

2.1.43.        World wide web

2.1.43.1.        Browsers

2.1.43.2.        Servers

3.        Business computing

3.1.        Accounting software

3.2.        Computer-aided design

3.3.        Computer-aided manufacturing

3.4.        Computer-assisted dispatch

3.5.        Customer relationship management

3.6.        Data warehouse

3.7.        Decision support system

3.8.        Electronic data processing

3.9.        Enterprise resource planning

3.10.        Geographic information system

3.11.        Hospital information system

3.12.        Human resource management system

3.13.        Management information system

3.14.        Material requirements planning

3.15.        Product Lifecycle Management

3.16.        Strategic enterprise management

3.17.        Supply chain management

3.18.        Utility Computing

4.        Human factors

4.1.        Accessible computing

4.2.        Computer-induced medical problems

4.3.        Computer user satisfaction

4.4.        Human-centered computing

4.5.        Interaction design

4.5.1.        Interaction design process and methods

4.5.1.1.        User interface design

4.5.1.2.        User centered design

4.5.1.3.        Activity centered design

4.5.1.4.        Scenario-based design

4.5.1.5.        Participatory design

4.5.1.6.        Contextual design

4.5.1.7.        Interface design prototyping

4.5.2.        Interaction design theory, concepts and paradigms

4.5.3.        Empirical studies in interaction design

4.5.4.        Systems and tools for interaction design

4.5.4.1.        Wireframes

4.5.5.        Collaborative and social computing

4.5.5.1.        Collaborative and social computing theory, concepts and paradigms

4.5.5.1.1.        Social content sharing

4.5.5.1.2.        Collaborative content creation

4.5.5.1.3.        Collaborative filtering

4.5.5.1.4.        Social recommendation

4.5.5.1.5.        Social networks

4.5.5.1.6.        Social tagging

4.5.5.1.7.        Computer supported cooperative work

4.5.5.1.8.        Social engineering (social sciences)

4.5.5.1.9.        Social navigation

4.5.5.1.10.        Social media

4.5.5.2.        Collaborative and social computing design and evaluation methods

4.5.5.2.1.        Social network analysis

4.5.5.2.2.        Ethnographic studies

4.5.5.3.        Collaborative and social computing systems and tools

4.5.5.3.1.        Blogs

4.5.5.3.2.        Wikis

4.5.5.3.3.        Reputation systems

4.5.5.3.4.        Open source software

4.5.5.3.5.        Social networking sites

4.5.5.3.6.        Social tagging systems

4.5.5.3.7.        Synchronous editors

4.5.5.3.8.        Asynchronous editors

4.5.5.4.        Empirical studies in collaborative and social computing

4.5.5.5.        Collaborative and social computing devices

4.5.6.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing

4.5.7.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing theory, concepts and paradigms

4.5.7.1.        Ubiquitous computing

4.5.7.2.        Mobile computing

4.5.7.3.        Ambient intelligence

4.5.8.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing systems and tools

4.5.9.        Ubiquitous and mobile devices

4.5.9.1.        Smartphones

4.5.9.2.        Interactive whiteboards

4.5.9.3.        Mobile phones

4.5.9.4.        Mobile devices

4.5.9.5.        Portable media players

4.5.9.6.        Personal digital assistants

4.5.9.7.        Handheld game consoles

4.5.9.8.        E-book readers

4.5.9.9.        Tablet computers

4.5.10.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing design and evaluation methods

4.5.11.        Empirical studies in ubiquitous and mobile computing

5.        Visualization

5.1.        Visualization techniques

5.1.1.        Treemaps

5.1.2.        Hyperbolic trees

5.1.3.        Heat maps

5.1.4.        Graph drawings

5.1.5.        Dendrograms

5.1.6.        Cladograms

5.2.        Visualization application domains

5.2.1.        Scientific visualization

5.2.2.        Visual analytics

5.2.3.        Geographic visualization

5.2.4.        Information visualization

5.3.        Visualization systems and tools

5.3.1.        Visualization toolkits

5.4.        Visualization theory, concepts and paradigms

5.5.        Empirical studies in visualization

5.6.        Visualization design and evaluation methods

6.        Accessibility

6.1.        Accessibility theory, concepts and paradigms

6.2.        Empirical studies in accessibility

6.3.        Accessibility design and evaluation methods

6.4.        Accessibility technologies

6.5.        Accessibility systems and tools

6.6.        Human-computer interaction

6.6.1.        Human computer interaction (HCI)

6.6.1.1.        HCI design and evaluation methods

6.6.1.1.1.        User models

6.6.1.1.2.        User studies

6.6.1.1.3.        Usability testing

6.6.1.1.4.        Heuristic evaluations

6.6.1.1.5.        Walkthrough evaluations

6.6.1.1.6.        Laboratory experiments

6.6.1.1.7.        Field studies

6.6.1.2.        Interaction paradigms

6.6.1.2.1.        Hypertext / hypermedia

6.6.1.2.2.        Mixed / augmented reality

6.6.1.2.3.        Command line interfaces

6.6.1.2.4.        Graphical user interfaces

6.6.1.2.5.        Virtual reality

6.6.1.2.6.        Web-based interaction

6.6.1.2.7.        Natural language interfaces

6.6.1.2.8.        Collaborative interaction

6.6.1.3.        Interaction devices

6.6.1.3.1.        Graphics input devices

6.6.1.3.2.        Displays and imagers

6.6.1.3.3.        Sound-based input / output

6.6.1.3.4.        Keyboards

6.6.1.3.5.        Pointing devices

6.6.1.3.6.        Touch screens

6.6.1.3.7.        Haptic devices

6.6.1.4.        HCI theory, concepts and models

6.6.1.5.        Interaction techniques

6.6.1.5.1.        Auditory feedback

6.6.1.5.2.        Text input

6.6.1.5.3.        Pointing

6.6.1.5.4.        Gestural input

6.6.1.6.        Interactive systems and tools

6.6.1.6.1.        User interface management systems

6.6.1.6.2.        User interface programming

6.6.1.6.3.        User interface toolkits

6.6.1.7.        Empirical studies in HCI

6.6.2.        Styles of human–computer interaction

6.6.2.1.        Command line interface

6.6.2.2.        Graphical user interface (GUI)

6.6.2.2.1.        Copy and paste, Cut and paste

6.6.2.2.2.        Single Document Interface, Multiple Document Interface, Tabbed Document Interface

6.6.2.2.3.        Elements of graphical user interfaces

6.6.2.2.3.1.        Pointer

6.6.2.2.3.2.        Widget (computing)

6.6.2.2.3.3.        icons

6.6.2.3.        WIMP (computing)

6.6.2.4.        Point-and-click

6.6.2.5.        Drag-and-drop

6.6.2.6.        Window managers

6.6.2.7.        WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)

6.6.2.8.        Zooming user interface (ZUI)

6.6.2.9.        Brushing and linking

6.6.2.10.        Crossing-based interfaces

6.6.3.        General human–computer interaction concepts

6.6.3.1.        accessibility and computer accessibility

6.6.3.2.        adaptive autonomy

6.6.3.3.        affordance

6.6.3.4.        banner blindness

6.6.3.5.        computer user satisfaction

6.6.3.6.        contextual design and contextual inquiry

6.6.3.7.        gender HCI

6.6.3.8.        gulf of evaluation

6.6.3.9.        gulf of execution

6.6.3.10.        habituation

6.6.3.11.        human action cycle

6.6.3.12.        human interface device

6.6.3.13.        human–machine interface

6.6.3.14.        interaction

6.6.3.15.        interaction technique

6.6.3.16.        look and feel

6.6.3.17.        mode

6.6.3.18.        physiological interaction

6.6.3.19.        principle of least astonishment

6.6.3.20.        progressive disclosure

6.6.3.21.        sonic interaction design

6.6.3.22.        thanatosensitivity

6.6.3.23.        transparency

6.6.3.24.        usability and usability testing

6.6.3.25.        user, luser

6.6.3.26.        user experience and user experience design

6.6.3.27.        user-friendliness

6.6.3.28.        user interface and user interface design

6.6.3.29.        user interface engineering and usability engineering

6.6.3.30.        handheld devices

6.6.3.31.    &nnbsp;   Human–computer information retrieval

6.6.3.32.        Information retrieval

6.6.3.33.        Internet and the World Wide Web

6.6.3.34.        multimedia

6.6.3.35.        Software agents

6.6.3.36.        Universal usability

6.6.3.37.        User experience design

6.6.3.38.        Visual programming languages.

6.6.3.39.        Knowbility

6.6.4.        Hardware

6.6.4.1.        Hardware input/output devices and peripherals:

6.6.4.1.1.        List of input devices

6.6.4.1.2.        unit record equipment

6.6.4.1.3.        barcode scanner

6.6.4.1.4.        keyboard

6.6.4.1.4.1.        computer keyboard

6.6.4.1.4.2.        keyboard shortcut

6.6.4.1.4.3.        ways to make typing more efficient: command history, autocomplete, autoreplace and Intellisense

6.6.4.1.5.        microphone

6.6.4.1.6.        pointing device

6.6.4.1.6.1.        computer mouse

6.6.4.1.6.1.1.        mouse chording

6.6.4.2.        List of output devices

6.6.4.2.1.        visual devices

6.6.4.2.1.1.        graphical output device

6.6.4.2.1.2.        display device

6.6.4.2.1.3.        computer display

6.6.4.2.1.4.        video projector

6.6.4.2.1.5.        computer printer

6.6.4.2.1.6.        plotter

6.6.4.2.2.        auditory devices

6.6.4.2.2.1.        speakers

6.6.4.2.2.2.        earphones

6.6.4.2.3.        tactile devices

6.6.4.2.3.1.        refreshable Braille display

6.6.4.2.3.2.        braille embosser

6.6.4.2.3.3.        Haptic devices

6.6.5.        Interface design methods

6.6.5.1.        activity-centered design

6.6.5.2.        Affordance analysis

6.6.5.3.        bodystorming

6.6.5.4.        Contextual design

6.6.5.5.        focus group

6.6.5.6.        iterative design

6.6.5.7.        participatory design

6.6.5.8.        pictive user interface workshop method

6.6.5.9.        rapid prototyping

6.6.5.10.        Scenario-based design (SBD)

6.6.5.11.        task analysis/task modeling

6.6.5.12.        user-centered design

6.6.5.13.        usage-centered design

6.6.5.14.        User scenario

6.6.5.15.        Value sensitive design

6.6.5.16.        Wizard of Oz experiment

6.6.6.        Usability

6.6.6.1.        Usability testing

6.6.6.2.        heuristic evaluation

6.6.6.3.        cognitive walkthrough

6.6.6.4.        usability lab

7.        Hardware

7.1.        Printed circuit boards

7.1.1.        Electromagnetic interference and compatibility

7.1.2.        PCB design and layout

7.2.        Communication hardware, interfaces and storage

7.2.1.        Signal processing systems

7.2.1.1.1.        Digital signal processing

7.2.1.1.2.        Beamforming

7.2.1.1.3.        Noise reduction

7.2.1.2.        Sensors and actuators

7.2.1.3.        Buses and high-speed links

7.2.1.4.        Displays and imagers

7.2.1.5.        External storage

7.2.1.6.        Networking hardware

7.2.1.7.        Printers

7.2.1.8.        Sensor applications and deployments

7.2.1.9.        Sensor devices and platforms

7.2.1.10.        Sound-based input / output

7.2.1.11.        Tactile and hand-based interfaces

7.2.1.11.1.        Touch screens

7.2.1.11.2.        Haptic devices

7.2.1.12.        Scanners

7.2.1.13.        Wireless devices

7.2.1.14.        Wireless integrated network sensors

7.2.1.15.        Electro-mechanical devices

7.2.2.        Integrated circuits

7.2.2.1.        3D integrated circuits

7.2.2.2.        Interconnect

7.2.2.2.1.        Input / output circuits

7.2.2.2.2.        Metallic interconnect

7.2.2.2.3.        Photonic and optical interconnect

7.2.2.2.4.        Radio frequency and wireless interconnect

7.2.2.3.        Semiconductor memory

7.2.2.3.1.        Dynamic memory

7.2.2.3.2.        Static memory

7.2.2.3.3.        Non-volatile memory

7.2.2.3.4.        Read-only memory

7.2.2.4.        Digital switches

7.2.2.4.1.        Transistors

7.2.2.4.2.        Logic families

7.2.2.5.        Logic circuits

7.2.2.5.1.        Arithmetic and datapath circuits

7.2.2.5.2.        Asynchronous circuits

7.2.2.5.3.        Combinational circuits

7.2.2.5.4.        Design modules and hierarchy

7.2.2.5.5.        Finite state machines

7.2.2.5.6.        Sequential circuits

7.2.2.6.        Reconfigurable logic and FPGAs

7.2.2.6.1.        Hardware accelerators

7.2.2.6.2.        High-speed input / output

7.2.2.6.3.        Programmable logic elements

7.2.2.6.4.        Programmable interconnect

7.2.2.6.5.        Reconfigurable logic applications

7.2.3.        Very large scale integration design

7.2.3.1.        3D integrated circuits

7.2.3.2.        Analog and mixed-signal circuits

7.2.3.2.1.        Data conversion

7.2.3.2.2.        Clock generation and timing

7.2.3.2.3.        Analog and mixed-signal circuit optimization

7.2.3.2.4.        Radio frequency and wireless circuits

7.2.3.2.5.        Wireline communication

7.2.3.2.6.        Analog and mixed-signal circuit synthesis

7.2.3.3.        Application-specific VLSI designs

7.2.3.3.1.        Application specific integrated circuits

7.2.3.3.2.        Application specific instruction set processors

7.2.3.3.3.        Application specific processors

7.2.3.4.        Design reuse and communication-based design

7.2.3.4.1.        Network on chip

7.2.3.4.2.        System on a chip

7.2.3.4.3.        Platform-based design

7.2.3.4.4.        Hard and soft IP

7.2.3.5.        Design rules

7.2.3.6.        Economics of chip design and manufacturing

7.2.3.7.        Full-custom circuits

7.2.3.8.        VLSI design manufacturing considerations

7.2.3.9.        On-chip resource management

7.2.3.10.        On-chip sensors

7.2.3.11.        Standard cell libraries

7.2.3.12.        VLSI packaging

7.2.3.12.1.        Die and wafer stacking

7.2.3.12.2.        Input / output styles

7.2.3.12.3.        Multi-chip modules

7.2.3.12.4.        Package-level interconnect

7.2.3.13.        VLSI system specification and constraints

7.2.4.        Power and energy

7.2.4.1.        Thermal issues

7.2.4.1.1.        Temperature monitoring

7.2.4.1.2.        Temperature simulation and estimation

7.2.4.1.3.        Temperature control

7.2.4.1.4.        Temperature optimization

7.2.4.2.        Energy generation and storage

7.2.4.2.1.        Batteries

7.2.4.2.2.        Fuel-based energy

7.2.4.2.3.        Renewable energy

7.2.4.2.4.        Reusable energy storage

7.2.4.3.        Energy distribution

7.2.4.3.1.        Energy metering

7.2.4.3.2.        Power conversion

7.2.4.3.3.        Power networks

7.2.4.3.4.        Smart grid

7.2.4.4.        Impact on the environment

7.2.4.5.        Power estimation and optimization

7.2.4.5.1.        Switching devices power issues

7.2.4.5.2.        Interconnect power issues

7.2.4.5.3.        Circuits power issues

7.2.4.5.4.        Chip-level power issues

7.2.4.5.5.        Platform power issues

7.2.4.5.6.        Enterprise level and data centers power issues

7.2.5.        Electronic design automation

7.2.5.1.        High-level and register-transfer level synthesis

7.2.5.1.1.        Datapath optimization

7.2.5.1.2.        Hardware-software codesign

7.2.5.1.3.        Resource binding and sharing

7.2.5.1.4.        Operations scheduling

7.2.5.2.        Hardware description languages and compilation

7.2.5.3.        Logic synthesis

7.2.5.3.1.        Combinational synthesis

7.2.5.3.2.        Circuit optimization

7.2.5.3.3.        Sequential synthesis

7.2.5.3.4.        Technology-mapping

7.2.5.3.5.        Transistor-level synthesis

7.2.5.4.        Modeling and parameter extraction

7.2.5.5.        Physical design (EDA)

7.2.5.5.1.        Clock-network synthesis

7.2.5.5.2.        Packaging

7.2.5.5.3.        Partitioning and floorplanning

7.2.5.5.4.        Placement

7.2.5.5.5.        Physical synthesis

7.2.5.5.6.        Power grid design

7.2.5.5.7.        Wire routing

7.2.5.6.        Timing analysis

7.2.5.6.1.        Electrical-level simulation

7.2.5.6.2.        Model-order reduction

7.2.5.6.3.        Compact delay models

7.2.5.6.4.        Static timing analysis

7.2.5.6.5.        Statistical timing analysis

7.2.5.6.6.        Transition-based timing analysis

7.2.5.7.        Methodologies for EDA

7.2.5.7.1.        Best practices for EDA

7.2.5.7.2.        Design databases for EDA

7.2.5.7.3.        Software tools for EDA

7.2.6.        Hardware validation

7.2.6.1.        Functional verification

7.2.6.1.1.        Model checking

7.2.6.1.2.        Coverage metrics

7.2.6.1.3.        Equivalence checking

7.2.6.1.4.        Semi-formal verification

7.2.6.1.5.        Simulation and emulation

7.2.6.1.6.        Transaction-level verification

7.2.6.1.7.        Theorem proving and SAT solving

7.2.6.1.8.        Assertion checking

7.2.6.2.        Physical verification

7.2.6.2.1.        Design rule checking

7.2.6.2.2.        Layout-versus-schematics

7.2.6.2.3.        Power and thermal analysis

7.2.6.2.4.        Timing analysis and sign-off

7.2.6.3.        Post-manufacture validation and debug

7.2.6.3.1.        Bug detection, localization and diagnosis

7.2.6.3.2.        Bug fixing (hardware)

7.2.6.3.3.        Design for debug

7.2.7.        Hardware test

7.2.7.1.        Analog, mixed-signal and radio frequency test

7.2.7.2.        Board- and system-level test

7.2.7.3.        Defect-based test

7.2.7.4.        Design for testability

7.2.7.4.1.        Built-in self-test

7.2.7.4.2.        Online test and diagnostics

7.2.7.4.3.        Test data compression

7.2.7.5.        Fault models and test metrics

7.2.7.6.        Memory test and repair

7.2.7.7.        Hardware reliability screening

7.2.7.8.        Test-pattern generation and fault simulation

7.2.7.9.        Testing with distributed and parallel systems

7.2.8.        Robustness

7.2.8.1.        Fault tolerance

7.2.8.1.1.        Error detection and error correction

7.2.8.1.2.        Failure prediction

7.2.8.1.3.        Failure recovery, maintenance and self-repair

7.2.8.1.4.        Redundancy

7.2.8.1.5.        Self-checking mechanisms

7.2.8.1.6.        System-level fault tolerance

7.2.8.2.        Design for manufacturability

7.2.8.2.1.        Process variations

7.2.8.2.2.        Yield and cost modeling

7.2.8.2.3.        Yield and cost optimization

7.2.8.3.        Hardware reliability

7.2.8.3.1.        Aging of circuits and systems

7.2.8.3.2.        Circuit hardening

7.2.8.3.3.        Early-life failures and infant mortality

7.2.8.3.4.        Process, voltage and temperature variations

7.2.8.3.5.        Signal integrity and noise analysis

7.2.8.3.6.        Transient errors and upsets

7.2.8.4.        Safety critical systems

7.2.9.        Emerging technologies

7.2.9.1.        Analysis and design of emerging devices and systems

7.2.9.1.1.        Emerging architectures

7.2.9.1.2.        Emerging languages and compilers

7.2.9.1.3.        Emerging simulation

7.2.9.1.4.        Emerging tools and methodologies

7.2.9.2.        Biology-related information processing

7.2.9.2.1.        Bio-embedded electronics

7.2.9.2.2.        Neural systems

7.2.9.3.        Circuit substrates

7.2.9.3.1.        III-V compounds

7.2.9.3.2.        Carbon based electronics

7.2.9.3.3.        Cellular neural networks

7.2.9.3.4.        Flexible and printable circuits

7.2.9.3.5.        Superconducting circuits

7.2.9.4.        Electromechanical systems

7.2.9.4.1.        Microelectromechanical systems

7.2.9.4.2.        Nanoelectromechanical systems

7.2.9.5.        Emerging interfaces

7.2.9.6.        Memory and dense storage

7.2.9.7.        Emerging optical and photonic technologies

7.2.9.8.        Reversible logic

7.2.9.9.        Plasmonics

7.2.9.10.        Quantum technologies

7.2.9.10.1.        Single electron devices

7.2.9.10.2.        Tunneling devices

7.2.9.10.3.        Quantum computation

7.2.9.10.3.1.        Quantum communication and cryptography

7.2.9.10.3.2.        Quantum error correction and fault tolerance

7.2.9.10.3.2.1.        Quantum dots and cellular automata

7.2.9.11.        Spintronics and magnetic technologies

8.        Bioinformatics

9.        Health informatics

10.        Cheminformatics

10.1.        Unstructured data

10.1.1.        Information retrieval

10.1.2.        Information extraction

10.2.        Structured Data Mining and mining of Structured data

10.2.1.        Database mining

10.2.2.        Graph mining

10.2.3.        Molecule mining

10.2.4.        Sequence mining

10.2.5.        Tree mining

10.3.        Digital libraries

11.        Disaster informatics

12.        Geoinformatics

13.        Information science

14.        Information storage systems

14.1.        Information storage technologies

14.1.1.        Magnetic disks

14.1.2.        Magnetic tapes

14.1.3.        Optical / magneto-optical disks

14.1.4.        Storage class memory

14.1.4.1.        Flash memory

14.1.4.2.        Phase change memory

14.1.5.        Disk arrays

14.1.6.        Tape libraries

14.2.        Record storage systems

14.2.1.        Record storage alternatives

14.2.1.1.        Heap (data structure)

14.2.1.2.        Hashed file organization

14.2.1.3.        Indexed file organization

14.2.1.4.        Linked lists

14.2.2.        Directory structures

14.2.2.1.        B-trees

14.2.2.2.        Vnodes

14.2.2.3.        Inodes

14.2.2.4.        Extent-based file structures

14.2.3.        Block / page strategies

14.2.3.1.        Slotted pages

14.2.3.2.        Intrapage space management

14.2.3.3.        Interpage free-space management

14.2.4.        Record layout alternatives

14.2.4.1.        Fixed length attributes

14.2.4.2.        Variable length attributes

14.2.4.3.        Null values in records

14.2.5.        Relational storage

14.2.5.1.        Horizontal partitioning

14.2.5.2.        Vertical partitioning

14.2.5.3.        Column based storage

14.2.5.4.        Hybrid storage layouts

14.2.5.5.        Compression strategies

14.2.6.        Storage replication

14.2.6.1.        Mirroring

14.2.6.2.        RAID

14.2.6.3.        Point-in-time copies

14.2.6.4.        Remote replication

14.2.6.5.        Storage recovery strategies

14.2.7.        Storage architectures

14.2.7.1.        Cloud based storage

14.2.7.2.        Storage network architectures

14.2.7.2.1.        Storage area networks

14.2.7.2.2.        Direct attached storage

14.2.7.2.3.        Network attached storage

14.2.7.3.        Distributed storage

14.2.8.        Storage management

14.2.8.1.        Hierarchical storage management

14.2.8.2.        Storage virtualization

14.2.8.3.        Information lifecycle management

14.2.8.4.        Version management

14.2.8.5.        Storage power management

14.2.8.6.        Thin provisioning

15.        Information systems applications

15.1.        Enterprise information systems

15.1.1.        Intranets

15.1.2.        Extranets

15.1.3.        Enterprise resource planning

15.1.4.        Enterprise applications

15.1.5.        Data centers

15.2.        Collaborative and social computing systems and tools

15.2.1.        Blogs

15.2.2.        Wikis

15.2.3.        Reputation systems

15.2.4.        Open source software

15.2.5.        Social networking sites

15.2.6.        Social tagging systems

15.2.7.        Synchronous editors

15.2.8.        Asynchronous editors

15.3.        Spatial-temporal systems

15.3.1.        Location based services

15.3.2.        Geographic information systems

15.3.3.        Sensor networks

15.3.4.        Data streaming

15.3.5.        Global positioning systems

15.4.        Decision support systems

15.4.1.        Data warehouses

15.4.2.        Expert systems

15.4.3.        Data analytics

15.4.4.        Online analytical processing

15.5.        Mobile information processing systems

15.6.        Process control systems

15.7.        Multimedia information systems

15.7.1.        Multimedia databases

15.7.2.        Multimedia streaming

15.7.3.        Multimedia content creation

15.7.4.        Massively multiplayer online games

15.8.        Data mining

15.8.1.        Data cleaning

15.8.2.        Collaborative filtering

15.8.3.        Association rules

15.8.4.        Clustering

15.8.5.        Nearest-neighbor search

15.8.6.        Data stream mining

15.9.        Digital libraries and archives

15.10.        Computational advertising

15.11.        Computing platforms

15.12.        Information retrieval

15.12.1.        Document representation

15.12.1.1.        Document structure

15.12.1.2.        Document topic models

15.12.1.3.        Content analysis and feature selection

15.12.1.4.        Data encoding and canonicalization

15.12.1.5.        Document collection models

15.12.1.6.        Ontologies

15.12.1.7.        Dictionaries

15.12.1.8.        Thesauri

15.12.2.        Information retrieval query processing

15.12.2.1.        Query representation

15.12.2.2.        Query intent

15.12.2.3.        Query log analysis

15.12.2.4.        Query suggestion

15.12.2.5.        Query reformulation

15.12.3.        Users and interactive retrieval

15.12.3.1.        Personalization

15.12.3.2.        Task models

15.12.3.3.        Search interfaces

15.12.3.4.        Collaborative search

15.12.4.        Retrieval models and ranking

15.12.4.1.        Rank aggregation

15.12.4.2.        Probabilistic retrieval models

15.12.4.3.        Language models

15.12.4.4.        Similarity measures

15.12.4.5.        Learning to rank

15.12.4.6.        Combination, fusion and federated search

15.12.4.7.        Information retrieval diversity

15.12.4.8.        Top-k retrieval in databases

15.12.4.9.        Novelty in information retrieval

15.12.5.        Retrieval tasks and goals

15.12.5.1.        Question answering

15.12.5.2.        Document filtering

15.12.5.3.        Recommender systems

15.12.5.4.        Information extraction

15.12.5.5.        Sentiment analysis

15.12.5.6.        Expert search

15.12.5.7.        Near-duplicate and plagiarism detection

15.12.5.8.        Clustering and classification

15.12.5.9.        Summarization

15.12.5.10.        Business intelligence

15.12.6.        Evaluation of retrieval results

15.12.6.1.        Test collections

15.12.6.2.        Relevance assessment

15.12.6.3.        Retrieval effectiveness

15.12.6.4.        Retrieval efficiency

15.12.6.5.        Presentation of retrieval results

15.12.7.        Search engine architectures and scalability

15.12.7.1.        Search engine indexing

15.12.7.2.        Search index compression

15.12.7.3.        Distributed retrieval

15.12.7.4.        Peer-to-peer retrieval

15.12.7.5.        Retrieval on mobile devices

15.12.7.6.        Adversarial retrieval

15.12.7.7.        Link and co-citation analysis

15.12.7.8.        Searching with auxiliary databases

15.12.8.        Specialized information retrieval

15.12.8.1.        Structure and multilingual text search

15.12.8.1.1.        Structured text search

15.12.8.1.2.        Mathematics retrieval

15.12.8.1.3.        Chemical and biochemical retrieval

15.12.8.1.4.        Multilingual and cross-lingual retrieval

15.12.8.2.        Multimedia and multimodal retrieval

15.12.8.2.1.        Image search

15.12.8.2.2.        Video search

15.12.8.2.3.        Speech / audio search

15.12.8.2.4.        Music retrieval

15.12.8.3.        Environment-specific retrieval

15.12.8.3.1.        Enterprise search

15.12.8.3.2.        Desktop search

15.12.8.3.3.        Web and social media search

16.        Web sciences

17.        World Wide Web

17.1.        Web searching and information discovery

17.1.1.        Web search engines

17.1.1.1.        Web crawling

17.1.1.2.        Web indexing

17.1.1.3.        Page and site ranking

17.1.1.4.        Spam detection

17.1.2.        Content ranking

17.1.3.        Collaborative filtering

17.1.4.        Social recommendation

17.1.5.        Personalization

17.1.6.        Social tagging

17.2.        Online advertising

17.2.1.        Sponsored search advertising

17.2.2.        Content match advertising

17.2.3.        Display advertising

17.2.4.        Social advertising

17.3.        Web mining

17.3.1.        Site wrapping

17.3.2.        Data extraction and integration

17.3.2.1.        Deep web

17.3.2.2.        Surfacing

17.3.2.3.        Search results deduplication

17.3.3.        Web log analysis

17.3.4.        Traffic analysis

17.4.        Web applications

17.4.1.        Internet communications tools

17.4.1.1.        Email

17.4.1.2.        Blogs

17.4.1.3.        Texting

17.4.1.4.        Chat

17.4.1.5.        Web conferencing

17.4.2.        Social networks

17.4.3.        Crowdsourcing

17.4.3.1.        Answer ranking

17.4.3.2.        Trust

17.4.3.3.        Incentive schemes

17.4.3.4.        Reputation systems

17.4.4.        Electronic commerce

17.4.4.1.        Digital cash

17.4.4.2.        E-commerce infrastructure

17.4.4.3.        Electronic data interchange

17.4.4.4.        Electronic funds transfer

17.4.4.5.        Online shopping

17.4.4.6.        Online banking

17.4.4.7.        Secure online transactions

17.4.4.8.        Online auctions

17.5.        Web interfaces

17.5.1.        Wikis

17.5.2.        Browsers

17.5.3.        Mashups

17.6.        Web services

17.6.1.        Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

17.6.2.        RESTful web services

17.6.3.        Web Services Description Language (WSDL)

17.6.4.        Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)

17.6.5.        Service discovery and interfaces

17.7.        Web data description languages

17.7.1.        Semantic we7b description languages

17.7.1.1.        Resource Description Framework (RDF)

17.7.1.2.        Web Ontology Language (OWL)

17.7.2.        Markup languages

17.7.2.1.        Extensible Markup Language (XML)

17.7.2.2. &nbnbsp;      Hypertext languages

18.        Management information system (MIS)

19.        Formative context

20.        Data processing

21.        History of computing hardware from the tally stick to the quantum computer

21.1.        History of computer science

21.2.        Punched card

21.3.        Unit record equipment

21.4.        IBM 700/7000 series

21.5.        IBM 1400 series

21.6.        IBM System/360

21.7.        History of IBM magnetic disk drives

22.        Other data topics

22.1.        Data compression

22.2.        Digital signal processing

22.3.        Image processing

22.4.        Data management

22.5.        Routing

22.6.        Data Protection Act

23.        Organizations

23.1.        Professional

23.1.1.        Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

23.1.2.        Association for Survey Computing (ASC)

23.1.3.        British Computer Society (BCS)

23.1.4.        Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS)

23.1.5.        Computer Measurement Group (CMG)

23.1.6.        Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), in particular the IEEE Computer Society

23.1.7.        Institution of Electrical Engineers

23.1.8.        International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

23.2.        Standards bodies

23.2.1.        International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

23.2.2.        International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

23.2.3.        Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

23.2.4.        Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

23.2.5.        World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

23.3.        Open standards

23.3.1.        Apdex Alliance – Application Performance Index

23.3.2.        Application Response Measurement (ARM)

23.3.2.1.        Applied computing

23.3.2.1.1.        Electronic commerce

23.3.2.1.1.1.        Digital cash

23.3.2.1.1.2.        E-commerce infrastructure

23.3.2.1.1.3.        Electronic data interchange

23.3.2.1.1.4.        Electronic funds transfer

23.3.2.1.1.5.        Online shopping

23.3.2.1.1.6.        Online banking

23.3.2.1.1.7.        Secure online transactions

23.3.2.1.1.8.        Online auctions

23.3.2.1.2.        Enterprise computing

23.3.2.1.2.1.        Enterprise information systems

23.3.2.1.2.1.1.        Intranets

23.3.2.1.2.1.2.        Extranets

23.3.2.1.2.1.3.        Enterprise resource planning

23.3.2.1.2.1.4.        Enterprise applications

23.3.2.1.2.1.5.        Data centers

23.3.2.1.2.2.        Business process management

23.3.2.1.2.2.1.        Business process modeling

23.3.2.1.2.2.2.        Business process management systems

23.3.2.1.2.2.3.        Business process monitoring

23.3.2.1.2.2.4.        Cross-organizational business processes

23.3.2.1.2.2.5.        Business intelligence

23.3.2.1.2.3.        Enterprise architectures

23.3.2.1.2.3.1.        Enterprise architecture management

23.3.2.1.2.3.2.        Enterprise architecture frameworks

23.3.2.1.2.3.3.        Enterprise architecture modeling

23.3.2.1.2.4.        Service-oriented architectures

23.3.2.1.2.5.        Event-driven architectures

23.3.2.1.2.6.        Business rules

23.3.2.1.2.7.        Enterprise modeling

23.3.2.1.2.8.        Enterprise ontologies, taxonomies and vocabularies

23.3.2.1.2.9.        Enterprise data management

23.3.2.1.2.10.        Reference models

23.3.2.1.2.11.        Business-IT alignment

23.3.2.1.2.12.        IT architectures

23.3.2.1.2.13.        IT governance

23.3.2.1.2.14.        Enterprise computing infrastructures

23.3.2.1.2.15.        Enterprise interoperability

23.3.2.1.2.15.1.1.        Enterprise application integration

23.3.2.1.2.15.1.2.        Information integration and interoperability

23.3.2.1.2.16.        Physical sciences and engineering

23.3.2.1.2.16.1.        Aerospace

23.3.2.1.2.16.1.1.        Avionics

23.3.2.1.2.16.2.        Archaeology

23.3.2.1.2.16.3.        Astronomy

23.3.2.1.2.16.4.        Chemistry

23.3.2.1.2.16.5.        Earth and atmospheric sciences

23.3.2.1.2.16.5.1.        Environmental sciences

23.3.2.1.2.16.6.        Engineering

23.3.2.1.2.16.6.1.        Computer-aided design

23.3.2.1.2.16.7.        Physics

23.3.2.1.2.16.8.        Mathematics and statistics

23.3.2.1.2.16.9.        Electronics

23.3.2.1.2.16.9.1.        Avionics

23.3.2.1.2.16.10.        Telecommunications

23.3.2.1.2.16.10.1.        Internet telephony

23.3.2.1.2.17.        Life and medical sciences

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.        Computational biology

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.1.        Molecular sequence analysis

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.2.        Recognition of genes and regulatory elements

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.3.        Molecular evolution

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.4.        Computational transcriptomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.5.        Biological networks

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.6.        Sequencing and genotyping technologies

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.7.        Imaging

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.8.        Computational proteomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.9.        Molecular structural biology

23.3.2.1.2.17.1.10.        Computational genomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.2.        Genomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.2.1.1.        Computational genomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.3.        Systems biology

23.3.2.1.2.17.4.        Consumer health

23.3.2.1.2.17.5.        Health care information systems

23.3.2.1.2.17.6.        Health informatics

23.3.2.1.2.17.7.        Bioinformatics

23.3.2.1.2.17.8.        Metabolomics / metabonomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.9.        Genetics

23.3.2.1.2.17.9.1.        Population genetics

23.3.2.1.2.17.9.2.        Proteomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.9.2.1.        Computational proteomics

23.3.2.1.2.17.9.3.        Transcriptomics

23.3.2.1.2.18.        Law, social and behavioral sciences

23.3.2.1.2.18.1.        Anthropology

23.3.2.1.2.18.1.1.        Ethnography

23.3.2.1.2.18.2.        Law

23.3.2.1.2.18.3.        Psychology

23.3.2.1.2.18.4.        Economics

23.3.2.1.2.18.5.        Sociology

23.3.2.1.2.19.        Computer forensics

23.3.2.1.2.19.1.        Surveillance mechanisms

23.3.2.1.2.19.2.        Investigation techniques

23.3.2.1.2.19.3.        Evidence collection, storage and analysis

23.3.2.1.2.19.4.        Network forensics

23.3.2.1.2.19.5.        System forensics

23.3.2.1.2.19.6.        Data recovery

23.3.2.1.2.20.        Arts and humanities

23.3.2.1.2.20.1.        Fine arts

23.3.2.1.2.20.2.        Performing arts

23.3.2.1.2.20.3.        Architecture (buildings)

23.3.2.1.2.20.3.1.        Computer-aided design

23.3.2.1.2.20.4.        Language translation

23.3.2.1.2.20.5.        Media arts

23.3.2.1.2.20.6.        Sound and music computing

23.3.2.1.2.21.        Computers in other domains

23.3.2.1.2.21.1.        Digital libraries and archives

23.3.2.1.2.21.2.        Publishing

23.3.2.1.2.21.3.        Military

23.3.2.1.2.21.3.1.        Cyberwarfare

23.3.2.1.2.21.4.        Cartography

23.3.2.1.2.21.5.        Agriculture

23.3.2.1.2.21.6.        Computing in government

23.3.2.1.2.21.6.1.        Voting / election technologies

23.3.2.1.2.21.6.2.        E-government

23.3.2.1.2.21.7.        Personal computers and PC applications

23.3.2.1.2.21.7.1.        Word processors

23.3.2.1.2.21.7.2.        Spreadsheets

23.3.2.1.2.21.7.3.        Computer games

23.3.2.1.2.21.7.4.        Microcomputers

23.3.2.1.2.22.        Operations research

23.3.2.1.2.22.1.        Consumer products

23.3.2.1.2.22.2.        Industry and manufacturing

23.3.2.1.2.22.2.1.        Supply chain management

23.3.2.1.2.22.2.2.        Command and control

23.3.2.1.2.22.3.        Computer-aided manufacturing

23.3.2.1.2.22.4.        Decision analysis

23.3.2.1.2.22.5.        Transportation

23.3.2.1.2.22.6.        Forecasting

23.3.2.1.2.22.7.        Marketing

23.3.2.1.2.23.        Education

23.3.2.1.2.23.1.        Digital libraries and archives

23.3.2.1.2.23.2.        Computer-assisted instruction

23.3.2.1.2.23.3.        Interactive learning environments

23.3.2.1.2.23.4.        Collaborative learning

23.3.2.1.2.23.5.        Learning management systems

23.3.2.1.2.23.6.        Distance learning

23.3.2.1.2.23.7.        E-learning

23.3.2.1.2.23.8.        Computer-managed instruction

23.3.2.1.2.24.        Document management and text processing

23.3.2.1.2.24.1.        Document searching

23.3.2.1.2.24.2.        Document management

23.3.2.1.2.24.2.1.        Text editing

23.3.2.1.2.24.2.2.        Version control

23.3.2.1.2.24.2.3.        Document metadata

23.3.2.1.2.24.3.        Document capture

23.3.2.1.2.24.3.1.        Document analysis

23.3.2.1.2.24.3.2.        Document scanning

23.3.2.1.2.24.3.3.        Graphics recognition and interpretation

23.3.2.1.2.24.3.4.        Optical character recognition

23.3.2.1.2.24.3.5.        Online handwriting recognition

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.        Document preparation

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.1.        Markup languages

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.2.        Extensible Markup Language (XML)

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.3.        Hypertext languages

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.4.        Annotation

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.5.        Format and notation

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.6.        Multi / mixed media creation

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.7.        Image composition

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.8.        Hypertext / hypermedia creation

23.3.2.1.2.24.4.9.        Document scripting languages

24.        Social and professional topics

24.1.        Professional topics

24.1.1.        Computing industry

24.1.1.1.        Industry statistics

24.1.1.2.        Computer manufacturing

24.1.1.3.        Sustainability

24.1.2.        Management of computing and information systems

24.1.2.1.        Project and people management

24.1.2.1.1.        Project management techniques

24.1.2.1.2.        Project staffing

24.1.2.1.3.        Systems planning

24.1.2.1.4.        Systems analysis and design

24.1.2.1.5.        Systems development

24.1.2.1.6.        Computer and information systems training

24.1.2.2.        Implementation management

24.1.2.2.1.        Hardware selection

24.1.2.2.2.        Computing equipment management

24.1.2.2.3.        Pricing and resource allocation

24.1.2.3.        Software management

24.1.2.3.1.        Software maintenance

24.1.2.3.2.        Software selection and adaptation

24.1.2.4.        System management

24.1.2.4.1.        Centralization / decentralization

24.1.2.4.2.        Technology audits

24.1.2.4.3.        Quality assurance

24.1.2.5.        Network operations

24.1.2.6.        File systems management

24.1.2.7.        Information system economics

24.1.3.        History of computing

24.1.3.1.        Historical people

24.1.3.2.        History of hardware

24.1.3.3.        History of software

24.1.3.4.        History of programming languages

24.1.3.5.        History of computing theory

24.1.4.        Computing education

24.1.4.1.        Computational thinking

24.1.4.2.        Accreditation

24.1.4.3.        Model curricula

24.1.4.4.        Computing education programs

24.1.4.4.1.        Information systems education

24.1.4.4.2.        Computer science education

24.1.4.4.2.1.        CS1

24.1.4.4.3.        Computer engineering education

24.1.4.4.4.        Information technology education

24.1.4.4.5.        Information science education

24.1.4.4.6.        Computational science and engineering education

24.1.4.4.7.        Software engineering education

24.1.4.5.        Informal education

24.1.4.6.        Computing literacy

24.1.4.7.        Student assessment

24.1.4.8.        K-12 education

24.1.4.9.        Adult education

24.1.5.        Computing and business

24.1.5.1.        Employment issues

24.1.5.2.        Automation

24.1.5.3.        Computer supported cooperative work

24.1.5.4.        Economic impact

24.1.5.5.        Offshoring

24.1.5.6.        Reengineering

24.1.5.7.        Socio-technical systems

24.1.6.        Computing profession

24.1.6.1.        Codes of ethics

24.1.6.2.        Employment issues

24.1.6.3.   nbsp;     Funding

24.1.6.4.        Computing occupations

24.1.6.5.        Computing organizations

24.1.6.6.        Testing, certification and licensing

24.1.6.7.        Assistive technologies

24.2.        Computing / technology policy

24.2.1.        Intellectual property

24.2.1.1.        Digital rights management

24.2.1.2.        Copyrights

24.2.1.3.        Software reverse engineering

24.2.1.4.        Patents

24.2.1.5.        Trademarks

24.2.1.6.        Internet governance / domain names

24.2.1.7.        Licensing

24.2.1.8.        Treaties

24.2.1.9.        Database protection laws

24.2.1.10.        Secondary liability

24.2.1.11.        Soft intellectual property

24.2.1.12.        Hardware reverse engineering

24.2.2.        Privacy policies

24.2.3.        Censorship

24.2.3.1.        Pornography

24.2.3.2.        Hate speech

24.2.3.3.        Political speech

24.2.3.4.        Technology and censorship

24.2.3.5.        Censoring filters

24.2.4.        Surveillance

24.2.4.1.        Governmental surveillance

24.2.4.2.        Corporate surveillance

24.2.4.2.1.        Commerce policy

24.2.4.2.1.1.        Taxation

24.2.4.2.1.2.        Transborder data flow

24.2.4.2.1.3.        Antitrust and competition

24.2.4.2.1.4.        Governmental regulations

24.2.4.2.1.5.        Online auctions policy

24.2.4.2.1.6.        Consumer products policy

24.2.4.2.2.        Network access control

24.2.4.2.2.1.        Censoring filters

24.2.4.2.2.2.        Broadband access

24.2.4.2.2.3.        Net neutrality

24.2.4.2.2.4.        Network access restrictions

24.2.4.2.2.4.1.        Age-based restrictions

24.2.4.2.2.4.2.        Acceptable use policy restrictions

24.2.4.2.2.5.        Universal access

24.2.4.2.3.        Computer crime

24.2.4.2.3.1.        Social engineering attacks

24.2.4.2.3.1.1.        Spoofing attacks

24.2.4.2.3.1.2.        Phishing

24.2.4.2.3.2.        Identity theft

24.2.4.2.3.3.        Financial crime

24.2.4.2.3.4.        Malware / spyware crime

24.2.4.2.4.        Government technology policy

24.2.4.2.4.1.        Governmental regulations

24.2.4.2.4.2.        Import / export controls

24.2.4.2.5.        Medical information policy

24.2.4.2.5.1.        Medical records

24.2.4.2.5.2.        Personal health records

24.2.4.2.5.3.        Genetic information

24.2.4.2.5.4.        Patient privacy

24.2.4.2.5.5.        Health information exchanges

24.2.4.2.5.6.        Medical technologies

24.2.4.2.5.6.1.        Remote medicine

24.2.5.        User characteristics

24.2.5.1.        Race and ethnicity

24.2.5.2.        Religious orientation

24.2.5.3.        Gender

24.2.5.3.1.        Men

24.2.5.3.2.        Women

24.2.6.        Sexual orientation

24.2.7.        People with disabilities

24.2.8.        Geographic characteristics

24.2.9.        Cultural characteristics

24.2.10.        Age

24.2.10.1.        Children

24.2.10.2.        Seniors

24.2.10.3.        Adolescents

25.        Proper nouns: People, technologies and companies

25.1.        Companies

25.1.1.        Accenture

25.1.2.        Adobe Systems Incorporated

25.1.3.        Advanced Information Systems

25.1.4.        Agere Systems, Inc.

25.1.5.        Agilent Technologies

25.1.6.        Alcatel-Lucent

25.1.6.1.        Bell Labs

25.1.7.        AOL, Inc.

25.1.8.        Apple, Inc.

25.1.9.        AT&T

25.1.10.        BAE Systems

25.1.11.        BEA Systems, Inc.

25.1.12.        Blizzard Entertainment

25.1.13.        Blue Sky Studios

25.1.14.        Borland Software Corporation

25.1.15.        CA Technologies

25.1.16.        Cable & Wireless Worldwide

25.1.17.        Cadence Design Systems

25.1.18.        China Telecom Corporation Limited

25.1.19.        Cisco Systems, Inc.

25.1.20.        Citrix Systems, Inc.

25.1.21.        Commerce One

25.1.22.        Compaq Computer Corporation

25.2.        Corel Corporation

25.2.1.        Dell Computer Corporation

25.2.2.        DiamondCluster International, Inc.

25.2.3.        Digital Equipment Corporation

25.3.        eBay Inc.

25.3.1.        EIS, Inc.

25.3.2.        EMC Corporation

25.3.3.        Ericsson

25.3.4.        Ernst & Young

25.3.5.        Forrester Research

25.3.6.        Gartner Group

25.3.7.        General Dynamics

25.3.8.        General Electric

25.3.9.        Google Inc.

25.3.10.        Hewlett-Packard Company

25.3.10.1.        HP Labs

25.3.11.        Infineon Technologies

25.3.12.        Infusion

25.3.13.        Intel Corporation

25.3.14.        International Business Machines Corporation

25.3.14.1.        IBM Almaden Research Center

25.3.14.2.        The IBM Toronto Software Lab

25.3.15.        International Data Corporation (IDC)

25.3.16.        Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

25.3.17.        Iona Technologies

25.3.18.        ITSS, Inc.

25.3.19.        Juniper Networks

25.3.20.        Lockheed Martin Corporation

25.3.21.        Macromedia

25.4.        McKinsey & Company

25.4.1.        Microsoft Corporation

25.4.2.        Motorola, Inc.

25.4.3.        Motorola Mobility, Inc.

25.4.4.        Motorola Solutions, Inc.

25.5.        Mozilla Corporation

25.5.1.        National Instruments Corporation

25.5.2.        Nokia Corporation

25.5.3.        Nortel Networks Corporation

25.5.4.        Novell, Inc.

25.5.5.        NVIDIA Corporation

25.6.        Oracle Corporation

25.6.1.        Sun Microsystems

25.6.2.        Philips Semiconductors

25.6.3.        NXP Semiconductors

25.6.4.        Pixar Animation Studios

25.6.5.        Quest Software, Inc.

25.6.6.        Rational Software Corporation

25.6.7.        Research in Motion Limited

25.6.7.1.        RSA

25.7.        SANS Institute

25.7.1.        SAS Institute, Inc.

25.7.2.        Sega Corporation

25.7.3.        Siemens AG

25.7.4.        Silicon Graphics, Inc.

25.7.5.        Sony Corporation

25.7.6.        SRI International

25.7.7.        Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation

25.7.8.        Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited

25.7.9.        Telcordia Technologies

25.7.10.        Texas Instruments Inc.

25.8.        The Standish Group International, Inc.

25.8.1.        Toshiba Corporation

25.8.2.        Virage Logic

25.9.        Virtual University Enterprises

25.9.1.        Xerox Corporation

25.9.1.1.        PARC

25.9.2.        Yahoo! Inc.

25.9.3.        Zilog, Inc.                                                                          

26.        Organizations

26.1.        ABET, Inc.

26.1.1.        Computing Accreditation Commission

26.2.        American Mathematical Society

26.3.        American National Standards Institute

26.4.        American Statistical Association

26.5.        Ames Research Center

26.6.        Apache Software Foundation

26.6.1.        Argonne National Laboratory

26.7.        Association for Computing Machinery

26.7.1.        Association for Information Systems

26.8.        Brazilian Computer Society

26.8.1.        British Computer Society

26.8.2.        Clay Mathematics Institute

26.8.3.        Charles Babbage Institute

26.8.4.        Computer History Museum

26.8.5.        Computer Press Association

26.8.5.1.        Computing Community Consortium

26.8.5.2.        Computing Research Association

26.8.6.        Computing Technology Industry Association

26.8.6.1.        Computer Science Teachers Association

26.8.7.        Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

26.8.8.        CSAB

26.8.8.1.        Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency

26.8.8.2.        Eclipse Foundation

26.8.8.3.        Electronic Frontier Foundation

26.8.9.        Electronic  Visualization Laboratory

26.8.9.1.        European Network and Information Security Agency

26.8.9.2.        European Telecommunications Standards Institute

26.8.9.3.        Federal Communications Commission

26.8.10.        Free Software Foundation

26.8.11.        Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

26.8.11.1.        IEEE Computer Society

26.8.11.1.1.        Test Technology Technical Council

26.8.12.        International Computer Music Association                                        

26.8.13.        International Game Developers Association

26.8.14.        International Organization for Standardization

26.8.15.        International Software Benchmarking Standards Group Limited

26.8.15.1.        ITU

26.8.15.2.        Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences

26.8.15.3.        JISC

26.8.16.        Jet Propulsion Laboratory

26.8.17.        Joint Photographic Experts Group

26.8.17.1.        Langley Research Center

26.8.17.2.        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

26.8.17.3.        Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

26.8.17.4.        Linux Professional Institute

26.8.17.5.        London Mathematical Society

26.8.17.6.        Los Alamos National Laboratory

26.8.18.        Massachusetts Institute of Technology

26.8.18.1.        MIT Media Lab

26.8.18.1.1.        Personal Robots Group

26.8.18.2.        Max Planck Institutes

26.8.18.3.        Moving Picture Experts Group

26.8.19.        Mozilla Foundation

26.8.20.        National Academy of Engineering

26.8.21.        National Academy of Sciences

26.8.22.        National Center for Education Statistics

26.8.22.1.        National Institute of Standards and Technology

26.8.23.        National Institutes of Health

26.8.23.1.        National Research Council

26.8.23.2.        National Science Foundation

26.8.23.3.        Oak Ridge National Laboratory

26.8.23.4.        Object Management Group

26.8.24.        Open Network Laboratory

26.8.24.1.        OSGi Alliance

26.8.24.2.        Operational Research Society

26.8.25.        Open Knowledge Society

26.8.25.1.        Open Source Initiative

26.8.25.2.        Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

26.8.25.3.        Patent and Trademark Office                                    

26.8.25.4.        Royal Statistical Society

26.8.25.5.        San Diego Supercomputer Center

26.8.26.        Sandia National Laboratories

26.8.26.1.        Semiconductor Industry Association

26.8.26.2.        Software Engineering Institute

26.8.26.3.        SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

26.8.26.4.        Systems Research Center

26.8.27.        TDWI

26.8.27.1.        The Open Group

26.8.28.        Transaction Processing Performance Council

26.8.29.        Trusted Computing Group                                        

26.8.29.1.        Viewpoints Research Institute

26.8.29.2.        Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.

26.8.29.3.        World Intellectual Property Organization

26.8.29.4.        World Wide Web Consortium

27.        People in computing

28.        van Wijngaarden

28.1.        Ada Lovelace

28.2.        Alan Cooper    

28.2.1.        Alan Curtis Kay

28.2.2.        Alan J. Perlis

28.2.2.1.        Alan Mathison Turing

28.2.2.2.        Allen Kent

28.2.2.3.        Allen Newell

28.2.3.        An'an Wang

28.2.3.1. &nbnbsp;      Andrew S. Grove

28.2.3.2.        Barbara Liskov

28.2.3.3.        Barry W. Boehm

28.2.3.4.        Bill Gates

28.2.3.5.        Bill Joy

28.2.3.6.        Bill Millard

28.2.3.7.        Bjarne Stroustrup

28.2.4.        Blaise Pascal

28.2.4.1.        Bruce Schneier

29.        A. R. Hoare

29.1.        Charles Babbage

29.2.        Charles Tandy

29.3.        Claude Elwood Shannon

29.4.        Clive Sinclair

29.4.1.        Cyril W. Cleverdon

29.4.1.1.        David Hilbert

29.4.2.        David Patterson

29.4.3.        David Sarnoff

29.4.3.1.        Donald Ervin Knuth

29.4.3.2.        Douglas R. Hofstadter

29.4.3.3.        Edmund Callis Berkeley

29.4.3.4.        Edvard Scheutz

29.4.4.        Elliot Irving Organick

29.4.4.1.        Gary McGraw

29.4.4.2.        Georg Scheutz

29.4.5.        Gene H. Golub

29.4.5.1.        Gordon Bell

29.4.5.2.        Grace Murray Hopper

29.4.5.3.        H. D. Goode

29.4.5.4.        Harry H. Goode

29.4.5.5.        Harvey M. Deitel

29.4.5.6.        Herbert A. Simon

29.4.5.7.        Herbert R. J. Grosch

29.4.5.8.        Herman H. Goldstine

29.4.6.        Herman Hollerith

29.4.7.        Ivar Jacobson

29.4.8.        James Gosling

29.4.9.        J. H. Wilkinson

29.4.9.1.        J. Presper Eckert

29.4.9.2.        J. Richard Buchi

29.4.9.3.        Jakob Nielsen

29.4.10.        Jay Wright Forrester

29.4.10.1.        Jim Blinn

29.4.10.2.        Jim Gray

29.4.11.        John Vincent Atanasoff

29.4.11.1.        John Cocke

29.4.12.        John McCarthy

29.4.12.1.        John R. Pasta

29.4.12.1.1.        John Sculley

29.4.12.1.2.        John Von Neumann

29.4.12.1.3.        John W. Mauchly

29.4.12.1.4.        Jon Kleinberg

29.4.13.        Kazimierz Kuratowski

29.4.13.1.        Kent Beck

29.4.14.        Konrad Zuse

29.4.14.1.        Kurt Godel

29.4.15.        Linus Torvalds

29.4.15.1.        Marian Smoluchowski

29.4.16.        Mark D. Weiser

29.4.17.        Martin Fowler

29.4.17.1.        Marvin Lee Minsky

29.4.17.2.        Maurice V. Wilkes

29.4.18.        Peter J. Denning

29.4.19.        Peter Norton

29.4.19.1.        R. Milner

29.4.20.        Richard M. Karp

29.4.20.1.        Robert R. Everett

29.4.21.        Seymour Papert

29.4.22.        Stefan Banach

29.4.22.1.        Steve Jobs

29.4.22.2.        Thomas J. Watson

29.4.22.3.        Thomas Watson, Jr.

29.4.22.4.        Vannevar Bush

29.4.22.5.        William C. Norris

30.        Technologies

30.1.        ActionScript

30.2.        ActiveX

30.3.        Ada language

30.4.        ANSI C                                

30.5.        Ajax

30.6.        AppleScript

30.7.        AutoCAD

30.8.        BASIC

30.9.        Bluetooth

30.10.        Business Process Execution Language

30.11.        CDMA systems

30.12.        Cell Broadband Engine

30.13.        CMOS

30.14.        CORBA

30.15.        Datalog

30.16.        DB2

30.17.        DNS (Domain Name System)

30.18.        DOS

30.19.        Dreamweaver

30.20.        DSL

30.21.        DSM

30.21.1.        DVDs

30.21.2.        Eclipse

30.21.3.        Ethernet

30.21.4.        Excel

30.21.5.        CD-ROMs

30.21.6.        Facebook

30.21.7.        Internet Explorer

30.21.8.        Chrome

30.21.9.        Firefox

30.21.10.        Flickr

30.21.11.        Fortran

30.22.        FreeBSD

30.23.        Gmail

30.23.1.        Google Earth

30.23.2.        Google

30.23.3.        Google Maps

30.23.4.        Google Scholar

30.23.5.        GSM

30.24.        Haskell

30.24.1.        HDTV

30.24.2.        HP-UX

30.24.3.        InfiniBand

30.25.        IP Multimedia Subsystem

30.26.        Apple

30.26.1.        iPhone

30.26.2.        iPod

30.26.3.        IPTV

30.26.4.        IPv6

30.27.        JAVA ME

30.27.1.        JavaScript

30.27.2.        JPEG

30.27.3.        JSP

30.27.4.        LAPACK

30.27.5.        Linux

30.27.6.        Lotus Notes

30.27.7.        Macintosh OS

30.27.8.        Macintosh

30.27.9.        Mathematica

30.27.10.        MATLAB

30.28.        MIMO Systems

30.28.1.        Mobile IP

30.28.2.        WiMAX

30.28.3.        MODIS

30.28.4.        MP3

30.28.5.        MS-DOS

30.29.        MSN (portal)

30.30.        Myspace

30.30.1.        MySQL

30.30.2.        NetWare

30.31.        OFDM System

30.32.        Office

30.32.1.        OpenMP

30.32.2.        Oracle Database

30.32.3.        Outlook

30.32.4.        PDF

30.32.5.        Pentium

30.33.        Photoshop

30.34.        PlanetLab

30.34.1.        Pocket PC

30.35.        PowerPC

30.35.1.        PowerPoint

30.35.2.        Prolog

30.35.3.        QuarkXPress

30.35.4.        QuickBooks

30.35.5.        Quicken

30.35.6.        QuickTime

30.35.7.        Ruby on Rails

30.35.8.        RISC processors

30.35.9.        Samba

30.36.        SELinux

30.36.1.        SharePoint

30.37.        SIMD architectures

30.37.1.        Simulink

30.37.2.        Smalltalk

30.37.3.        Short Message Service

30.37.4.        SNMP

30.37.5.        Solaris

30.38.        SONET

30.38.1.        SPARC

30.38.2.        SQL Server

30.38.3.        Secure Sockets Layer

30.38.4.        Skype

30.39.        TMS320C

30.39.1.        Transport Layer Security

30.40.        TREC

30.40.1.        Twitter

30.40.2.        UMTS

30.41.        Unicode

30.41.1.        Usenet

30.41.2.        UWB

30.41.3.        VHDL

30.42.        Visual Basic

30.42.1.        VMware

30.42.2.        VoiceXML

30.42.3.        VRML

30.42.4.        Wifi

30.42.5.        Wikipedia

30.42.6.        Windows

30.42.7.        Windows environment

30.42.8.        WordNet

30.42.9.        X-Window

30.42.10.        X3D

30.42.11.        XILINX

30.43.        Yahoo! (portal)

30.43.1.        YouTube

30.43.2.        ZigBee

Credits: ACM Computing Classification, Wiki, Fields of Research