Scope of JournalsLondon Journals Press

1.        Classes of computers

1.1.        Analog computer

1.2.        Calculator

1.3.        Desktop computer

1.4.        Desktop replacement computer

1.5.        Digital computer

1.6.        Embedded computer

1.7.        Home computer

1.8.        Laptop

1.9.        Mainframe

1.10.        Minicomputer

1.11.        Microcomputer

1.12.        Personal computer

1.13.        Portable computer

1.14.        Personal digital assistant (aka PDA, or Handheld computer)

1.15.        Programmable logic controller or PLC

1.16.        Server

1.17.        Smartphone

1.18.        Supercomputer

1.19.        Tablet computer

1.20.        Video game console

1.21.        Workstation

2.        Computer Science

2.1.        Subfields

2.1.1.        Mathematical foundations        Game theory        Mathematical logic        Number theory        Discrete mathematics        Combinatorics        Combinatoric problems        Permutations and combinations        Combinatorial algorithms        Generating functions        Combinatorial optimization        Combinatorics on words        Enumeration        Graph theory        Trees        Hypergraphs        Random graphs        Graph coloring        Paths and connectivity problems        Graph enumeration        Matchings and factors        Graphs and surfaces        Network flows        Spectra of graphs        Extremal graph theory        Matroids and greedoids        Graph algorithms        Approximation algorithms        Probability and statistics        Probabilistic representations        Bayesian networks        Markov networks        Factor graphs        Decision diagrams        Equational models        Causal networks        Stochastic differential equations        Nonparametric representations        Kernel density estimators        Spline models        Bayesian nonparametric models        Probabilistic inference problems        Maximum likelihood estimation        Bayesian computation        Computing most probable explanation        Hypothesis testing and confidence interval computation        Density estimation        Quantile regression        Max marginal computation        Probabilistic reasoning algorithms        Variable elimination        Loopy belief propagation        Variational methods        Expectation maximization        Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods        Gibbs sampling        Metropolis-Hastings algorithm        Simulated annealing        Markov-chain Monte Carlo convergence measures        Sequential Monte Carlo methods        Kalman filters and hidden Markov models        Resampling methods        Bootstrapping        Jackknifing        Random number generation        Probabilistic algorithms        Statistical paradigms        Queueing theory        Contingency table analysis        Regression analysis        Robust regression        Time series analysis        Survival analysis        Renewal theory        Dimensionality reduction        Cluster analysis        Statistical graphics        Exploratory data analysis        Stochastic processes        Markov processes        Nonparametric statistics        Distribution functions        Multivariate statistics        Mathematical software        Solvers        Statistical software        Mathematical software performance        Information theory        Coding theory        Mathematical analysis        Numerical analysis        Computation of transforms        Computations in finite fields        Computations on matrices        Computations on polynomials        Gröbner bases and other special bases        Number-theoretic computations        Interpolation        Numerical differentiation        Interval arithmetic        Arbitrary-precision arithmetic        Automatic differentiation        Mesh generation        Discretization        Mathematical optimization        Discrete optimization        Network optimization        Continuous optimization        Linear programming        Semidefinite programming        Convex optimization        Quasiconvex programming and unimodality        Stochastic control and optimization        Quadratic programming        Nonconvex optimization        Mixed discrete-continuous optimization        Submodular optimization and polymatroids        Integer programming        Differential equations        Ordinary differential equations        Partial differential equations        Differential algebraic equations        Differential variational inequalities        Calculus        Lambda calculus        Differential calculus        Integral calculus        Functional analysis        Approximation        Integral equations        Nonlinear equations        Quadrature        Continuous mathematics        Calculus        Lambda calculus        Differential calculus        Integral calculus        Topology        Point-set topology        Algebraic topology        Geometric topology        Continuous functions        Symbolic and algebraic manipulation        Symbolic and algebraic algorithms        Combinatorial algorithms        Algebraic algorithms        Nonalgebraic algorithms        Symbolic calculus algorithms        Exact arithmetic algorithms        Hybrid symbolic-numeric methods        Discrete calculus algorithms        Number theory algorithms        Equation and inequality solving algorithms        Linear algebra algorithms        Theorem proving algorithms        Boolean algebra algorithms        Optimization algorithms        Computer algebra systems        Special-purpose algebraic systems        Representation of mathematical objects        Representation of exact numbers        Representation of mathematical functions        Representation of Boolean functions        Representation of polynomials                                

2.1.2.        Algorithms and data structures        Algorithms – Sequential and parallel computational procedures for solving a wide range of problems.        Data structures – The organization and manipulation of data.

2.1.3.        Artificial intelligence        Artificial intelligence        Natural language processing        Information extraction        Machine translation        Discourse, dialogue and pragmatics        Natural language generation        Speech recognition        Lexical semantics        Phonology / morphology        Language resources        Knowledge representation and reasoning        Description logics        Semantic networks        Nonmonotonic, default reasoning and belief revision        Probabilistic reasoning        Vagueness and fuzzy logic        Causal reasoning and diagnostics        Temporal reasoning        Cognitive robotics        Ontology engineering        Logic programming and answer set programming        Spatial and physical reasoning        Reasoning about belief and knowledge        Planning and scheduling        Planning for deterministic actions        Planning under uncertainty        Multi-agent planning        Planning with abstraction and generalization        Robotic planning        Search methodologies        Heuristic function construction        Discrete space search        Continuous space search        Randomized search        Game tree search        Abstraction and micro-operators        Search with partial observations        Control methods        Robotic planning        Computational control theory        Motion path planning        Philosophical/theoretical foundations of artificial intelligence        Cognitive science        Theory of mind        Distributed artificial intelligence        Multi-agent systems        Intelligent agents        Mobile agents        Cooperation and coordination        Automated reasoning        Computer vision        Computer vision tasks        Biometrics        Scene understanding        Activity recognition and understanding        Video summarization        Visual content-based indexing and retrieval        Visual inspection        Vision for robotics        Scene anomaly detection        Image and video acquisition        Camera calibration        Epipolar geometry        Computational photography        Hyperspectral imaging        Motion capture        3D imaging        Active vision        Computer vision representations        Image representations        Shape representations        Appearance and texture representations        Hierarchical representations        Computer vision problems        Interest point and salient region detections        Image segmentation        Video segmentation        Shape inference        Object detection        Object recognition        Object identification        Tracking        Reconstruction        Matching        Soft computing        Machine learning        Learning paradigms        Supervised learning        Ranking        Learning to rank        Supervised learning by classification        Supervised learning by regression        Structured outputs        Cost-sensitive learning        Unsupervised learning        Cluster analysis        Anomaly detection        Mixture modeling        Topic modeling        Source separation        Motif discovery        Dimensionality reduction and manifold learning        Reinforcement learning        Sequential decision making        Inverse reinforcement learning        Apprenticeship learning        Multi-agent reinforcement learning        Adversarial learning        Multi-task learning        Transfer learning        Lifelong machine learning        Learning under covariate shift        Learning settings        Batch learning        Online learning settings        Learning from demonstrations        Learning from critiques        Learning from implicit feedback        Active learning settings        Semi-supervised learning settings        Machine learning approaches        Classification and regression trees        Kernel methods        Support vector machines        Gaussian processes        Neural networks        Logical and relational learning        Inductive logic learning        Statistical relational learning        Learning in probabilistic graphical models        Maximum likelihood modeling        Maximum entropy modeling        Maximum a posteriori modeling        Mixture models        Latent variable models        Bayesian network models        Learning linear models        Perceptron algorithm        Factorization methods        Non-negative matrix factorization        Factor analysis        Principal component analysis        Canonical correlation analysis        Latent Dirichlet allocation        Rule learning        Instance-based learning        Markov decision processes        Partially-observable Markov decision processes        Stochastic games        Learning latent representations        Deep belief networks        Machine learning algorithms        Dynamic programming for Markov decision processes        Value iteration        Q-learning        Policy iteration        Temporal difference learning        Approximate dynamic programming methods        Ensemble methods        Boosting        Bagging        Spectral methods        Feature selection        Regularization        Cross-validation        Modeling and simulation        Model development and analysis        Modeling methodologies        Model verification and validation        Uncertainty quantification        Simulation theory        Systems theory        Network science        Simulation types and techniques        Uncertainty quantification        Quantum mechanic simulation        Molecular simulation        Rare-event simulation        Discrete-event simulation        Agent / discrete models        Distributed simulation        Continuous simulation        Continuous models        Real-time simulation        Interactive simulation        Multiscale systems        Massively parallel and high-performance simulations        Data assimilation        Scientific visualization        Visual analytics        Simulation by animation        Simulation support systems        Simulation environments        Simulation languages        Simulation tools        Simulation evaluation        Computer graphics        Animation        Motion capture        Procedural animation        Physical simulation        Motion processing        Collision detection        Rendering        Rasterization        Ray tracing        Non-photorealistic rendering        Reflectance modeling        Visibility        Image manipulation        Computational photography        Image processing        Texturing        Image-based rendering        Antialiasing        Graphics systems and interfaces        Graphics processors        Graphics input devices        Mixed / augmented reality        Perception        Graphics file formats        Virtual reality        Image compression        Shape modeling        Mesh models        Mesh geometry models        Parametric curve and surface models        Point-based models        Volumetric models        Shape analysis        nbsp;Distributed computing methodologies        Distributed algorithms        MapReduce algorithms        Self-organization        Distributed programming languages        Concurrent computing methodologies        Concurrent programming languages        Concurrent algorithms        Parallel computing methodologies        Parallel algorithms        MapReduce algorithms        Self-organization        Shared memory algorithms        Vector / streaming algorithms        Massively parallel algorithms        Parallel programming languages        Evolutionary computing        Natural language processing        Robotics

2.1.4.        Communication and security        Networking        Networks        Network architectures        Network design principles        Layering        Naming and addressing        Programming interfaces        Network protocols        Network protocol design        Protocol correctness        Protocol testing and verification        Formal specifications        Link-layer protocols        Network layer protocols        Routing protocols        Signaling protocols        Transport protocols        Session protocols        Presentation protocols        Application layer protocols        Peer-to-peer protocols        OAM protocols        Time synchronization protocols        Network policy        Cross-layer protocols        Network File System (NFS) protocol        Network components        Intermediate nodes        Routers        Bridges and switches        Physical links        Repeaters        Middle boxes / network appliances        End nodes        Network adapters        Network servers        Wireless access points, base stations and infrastructure        Cognitive radios        Logical nodes        Network domains        Network algorithms        Data path algorithms        Packet classification        Deep packet inspection        Packet scheduling        Control path algorithms        Network resources allocation        Network control algorithms        Traffic engineering algorithms        Network design and planning algorithms        Network economics        Network performance evaluation        Network performance modeling        Network simulations        Network experimentation        Network performance analysis        Network measurement        Network properties        Network security        Security protocols        Web protocol security        Mobile and wireless security        Denial-of-service attacks        Firewalls        Network range        Short-range networks        Local area networks        Metropolitan area networks        Wide area networks        Very long-range networks        Network structure        Topology analysis and generation        Physical topologies        Logical / virtual topologies        Network topology types        Point-to-point networks        Bus networks        Star networks        Ring networks        Token ring networks        Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI)        Mesh networks        Wireless mesh networks        Hybrid networks        Network dynamics        Network reliability        Error detection and error correction        Network mobility        Network manageability        Network privacy and anonymity        Network services        Naming and addressing        Cloud computing        Location based services        Programmable networks        In-network processing        Network management        Network monitoring        Network types        Network on chip        Home networks        Storage area networks        Data center networks        Wired access networks        Cyber-physical networks        Sensor networks        Mobile networks        Overlay and other logical network structures        Peer-to-peer networks        World Wide Web (network structure)        Social media networks        Online social networks        Wireless access networks        Wireless Local Area networking        Computing technology based wireless networking (CbWN)        Source coding        Security        Intelligence        Software        Wireless personal area networks        Ad hoc networks        Mobile ad hoc networks        Public Internet        Packet-switching networks        Computer security        Cryptology – cryptography – information theory        Cracking – demon dialing – Hacking – war dialing – war driving        Social engineering – Dumpster diving        Physical security – Black bag job        Computer insecurity        Computer surveillance        Defensive programming        Malware        Security engineering        Cryptography        Key management        Public key (asymmetric) techniques        Digital signatures        Public key encryption        Symmetric cryptography and hash functions        Block and stream ciphers        Hash functions and message authentication codes        Cryptanalysis and other attacks        Information-theoretic techniques        Mathematical foundations of cryptography        Formal methods and theory of security        Trust frameworks        Security requirements        Formal security models        Logic and verification        Security services        Authentication        Biometrics        Graphical / visual passwords        Multi-factor authentication        Access control        Pseudonymity, anonymity and untraceability        Privacy-preserving protocols        Digital rights management        Authorization        Intrusion/anomaly detection and malware mitigation        Malware and its mitigation        Intrusion detection systems        Social engineering attacks        Spoofing attacks        Phishing        Security in hardware        Tamper-proof and tamper-resistant designs        Embedded systems security        Hardware security implementation        Hardware-based security protocols        Hardware attacks and countermeasures        Malicious design modifications        Side-channel analysis and countermeasures        Hardware reverse engineering        Systems security        Operating systems security        Mobile platform security        Trusted computing        Virtualization and security        Browser security        Distributed systems security        Information flow control        Denial-of-service attacks        Firewalls        Vulnerability management        Penetration testing        Vulnerability scanners        File system security        Network security        Security protocols        Web protocol security        Mobile and wireless security        Denial-of-service attacks        Firewalls        Database and storage security        Data anonymization and sanitization        Management and querying of encrypted data        Information accountability and usage control        Database activity monitoring        Software and application security        Software security engineering        Web application security        Social network security and privacy        Domain-specific security and privacy architectures        Software reverse engineering        Human and societal aspects of security and privacy nbsp;       Economics of security and privacy        Social aspects of security and privacy        Privacy protections        Usability in security and privacy

2.1.5.        Computer architecture        Architectures        Serial architectures        Reduced instruction set computing        Complex instruction set computing        Superscalar architectures        Pipeline computing        Stack machines        Parallel architectures        Very long instruction word        Interconnection architectures        Multiple instruction, multiple data        Cellular architectures        Multiple instruction, single data        Single instruction, multiple data        Systolic arrays        Multicore architectures        Distributed architectures        Cloud computing        Client-server architectures        n-tier architectures        Peer-to-peer architectures        Grid computing        Other architectures        Neural networks        Reconfigurable computing        Analog computers        Data flow architectures        Heterogeneous (hybrid) systems        Self-organizing autonomic computing        Optical computing        Quantum computing        Molecular computing        High-level language architectures        Special purpose systems        Operating systems        Embedded and cyber-physical systems        Sensor networks        Robotics        Robotic components        Robotic control        Robotic autonomy        External interfaces for robotics        Sensors and actuators        System on a chip        Embedded systems        Firmware        Embedded hardware        Embedded software        Real-time systems        Real-time operating systems        Real-time languages        Real-time system specification        Real-time system architecture        Dependable and fault-tolerant systems and networks        Reliability        Availability        Maintainability and maintenance        Processors and memory architectures        Secondary storage organization        Redundancy        Fault-tolerant network topologies

2.1.6.        Computer graphics        Computer graphics        Image processing

2.1.7.        Concurrent, parallel, and distributed systems        Parallel computing        Concurrency (computer science)        Distributed computing

2.1.8.        Databases        Relational databases        Data management systems        Database design and models        Relational database model        Entity relationship models        Graph-based database models        Hierarchical data models        Network data models        Physical data models        Data model extensions        Semi-structured data        Data streams        Data provenance        Incomplete data        Temporal data        Uncertainty        Inconsistent data        Data structures        Data access methods        Multidimensional range search        Data scans        Point lookups        Unidimensional range search        Proximity search        Data layout        Data compression        Data encryption        Record and block layout        Database management system engines        DBMS engine architectures        Database query processing        Query optimization        Query operators        Query planning        Join algorithms        Database transaction processing        Data locking        Transaction logging        Database recovery        Record and buffer management        Parallel and distributed DBMSs        Key-value stores        MapReduce-based systems        Relational parallel and distributed DBMSs        Triggers and rules        Database views        Integrity checking        Distributed database transactions        Distributed data locking        Deadlocks        Distributed database recovery        Main memory engines        Online analytical processing engines        Stream management        Query languages        Relational database query languages        Structured Query Language        XML query languages        XPath        XQuery        Query languages for non-relational engines        MapReduce languages        Call level interfaces        Database administration        Database utilities and tools        Database performance evaluation        Autonomous database administration        Data dictionaries        Information integration        Deduplication        Extraction, transformation and loading        Data exchange        Data cleaning        Wrappers (data mining)        Mediators and data integration        Entity resolution        Data warehouses        Federated databases        Middleware for databases        Database web servers        Application servers        Object-relational mapping facilities        Data federation tools        Data replication tools        Distributed transaction monitors        Message queues        Service buses        Enterprise application integration tools        Middleware business process managers        Structured Storage        Data mining

2.1.9.        Programming languages and compilers        Compiler theory        Models of computation        Computability        Lambda calculus        Turing machines        Recursive functions        Probabilistic computation        Quantum computation theory        Quantum complexity theory        Quantum communication complexity        Quantum query complexity        Quantum information theory        Interactive computation        Streaming models        Concurrency        Parallel computing models        Distributed computing models        Process calculi        Timed and hybrid models        Abstract machines        Formal languages and automata theory        Formalisms        Algebraic language theory        Rewrite systems        Automata over infinite objects        Grammars and context-free languages        Tree languages        Automata extensions        Transducers        Quantitative automata        Regular languages        Computational complexity and cryptography        Complexity classes        Problems, reductions and completeness        Communication complexity        Circuit complexity        Oracles and decision trees        Algebraic complexity theory        Quantum complexity theory        Proof complexity        Interactive proof systems        Complexity theory and logic        Cryptographic primitives        Cryptographic protocols        Logic        Logic and verification        Proof theory        Modal and temporal logics        Automated reasoning        Constraint and logic programming        Constructive mathematics        Description logics        Equational logic and rewriting        Finite Model Theory        Higher order logic        Linear logic        Programming logic        Abstraction        Verification by model checking        Type theory        Hoare logic        Separation logic        Design and analysis of algorithms        Graph algorithms analysis        Network flows        Sparsification and spanners        Shortest paths        Dynamic graph algorithms        Approximation algorithms analysis        Scheduling algorithms        Packing and covering problems        Routing and network design problems        Facility location and clustering        Rounding techniques        Stochastic approximation        Numeric approximation algorithms        Mathematical optimization        Discrete optimization        Network optimization        Continuous optimization        Linear programming        Semidefinite programming        Convex optimization        Quasiconvex programming and unimodality        Stochastic control and optimization        Quadratic programming        Nonconvex optimization        Mixed discrete-continuous optimization        Submodular optimization and polymatroids        Integer programming        Data structures design and analysis        Data compression        Pattern matching        Sorting and searching        Predecessor queries        Cell probe models and lower bounds        Online algorithms        Online learning algorithms        Scheduling algorithms        Caching and paging algorithms        K-server algorithms        Adversary models        Parameterized complexity and exact algorithms        Fixed parameter tractability        W hierarchy        Streaming, sublinear and near linear time algorithms        Bloom filters and hashing        Sketching and sampling        Lower bounds and information complexity        Random order and robust communication complexity        Nearest neighbor algorithms        Parallel algorithms        MapReduce algorithms        Self-organization        Shared memory algorithms        Vector / streaming algorithms        Massively parallel algorithms        Distributed algorithms        MapReduce algorithms        Self-organization        Algorithm design techniques        Backtracking        Branch-and-bound        Divide and conquer        Dynamic programming        Preconditioning        Concurrent algorithms        Randomness, geometry and discrete structures        Pseudorandomness and derandomization        Computational geometry        Generating random combinatorial structures        Random walks and Markov chains        Expander graphs and randomness extractors        Error-correcting codes        Random projections and metric embeddings        Random network models        Theory and algorithms for application domains        Machine learning theory        Sample complexity and generalization bounds        Boolean function learning        Unsupervised learning and clustering        Kernel methods        Support vector machines        Gaussian processes        Boosting        Bayesian analysis        Inductive inference        Online learning theory        Multi-agent learning        Models of learning        Query learning        Structured prediction        Reinforcement learning        Sequential decision making        Inverse reinforcement learning        Apprenticeship learning        Multi-agent reinforcement learning        Adversarial learning        Active learning        Semi-supervised learning        Markov decision processes        Regret bounds        Algorithmic game theory and mechanism design        Social networks        Algorithmic game theory        Algorithmic mechanism design        Solution concepts in game theory        Exact and approximate computation of equilibria        Quality of equilibria        Convergence and learning in games        Market equilibria        Computational pricing and auctions        Representations of games and their complexity        Network games        Network formation        Computational advertising theory        Database theory        Data exchange        Data provenance        Data modeling        Database query languages (principles)        Database constraints theory        Database interoperability        Data structures and algorithms for data management        Database query processing and optimization (theory)        Data integration        Logic and databases        Theory of database privacy and security        Incomplete, inconsistent, and uncertain databases        Semantics and reasoning        Program constructs        Control primitives        Functional constructs        Object oriented constructs        Program schemes        Type structures        Program semantics        Algebraic semantics        Denotational semantics        Operational semantics        Axiomatic semantics        Action semantics        Categorical semantics        Program reasoning        Invariants        Program specifications        Pre- and post-conditions        Program verification        Program analysis        Assertions        Parsing        Abstraction        Programming language pragmatics        Programming language theory        Formal semantics        Type theory

2.1.10.        Scientific computing        Computational science        Numerical analysis        Symbolic computation        Computational physics        Computational chemistry        Bioinformatics and Computational biology        Computational neuroscience

2.1.11.        Software        Software engineering        Formal methods        Software engineering        Software organization and properties        Contextual software domains        E-commerce infrastructure        Software infrastructure        Interpreters        Middleware        Message oriented middleware        Reflective middleware        Embedded middleware        Virtual machines        Operating systems        File systems management        Memory management        Virtual memory        Main memory        Allocation / deallocation strategies        Garbage collection        Distributed memory        Secondary storage        Process management        Scheduling        Deadlocks        Multithreading        Multiprocessing / multiprogramming / multitasking        Monitors        Mutual exclusion        Concurrency control        Power management        Process synchronization        Communications management        Buffering        Input / output        Message passing        Virtual worlds software        Interactive games        Virtual worlds training simulations        Software system structures        Embedded software        Software architectures        n-tier architectures        Peer-to-peer architectures        Data flow architectures        Cooperating communicating processes        Layered systems        Publish-subscribe / event-based architectures        Electronic blackboards        Simulator / interpreter        Object oriented architectures        Tightly coupled architectures        Space-based architectures        3-tier architectures        Software system models        Petri nets        State systems        Entity relationship modeling        Model-driven software engineering        Feature interaction        Massively parallel systems        Ultra-large-scale systems        Distributed systems organizing principles        Cloud computing        Client-server architectures        Grid computing        Organizing principles for web applications        Real-time systems software        Abstraction, modeling and modularity        Software functional properties        Correctness        Synchronization        Functionality        Real-time schedulability        Consistency        Completeness        Access protection        Formal methods        Model checking        Software verification        Automated static analysis        Dynamic analysis        Extra-functional properties        Interoperability        Software performance        Software reliability        Software fault tolerance        Checkpoint / restart        Software safety        Software usability        Software notations and tools        General programming languages        Language types        Parallel programming languages        Distributed programming languages        Imperative languages        Object oriented languages        Functional languages        Concurrent programming languages        Constraint and logic languages        Data flow languages        Extensible languages        Assembly languages        Multiparadigm languages        Very high level languages        Language features        Abstract data types        Polymorphism        Inheritance        Control structures        Data types and structures        Classes and objects        Modules / packages        Constraints        Recursion        Concurrent programming structures        Procedures, functions and subroutines        Patterns        Coroutines        Frameworks        Formal language definitions        Syntax        Semantics        Compilers        Interpreters        Incremental compilers        Retargetable compilers        Just-in-time compilers        Dynamic compilers        Translator writing systems and compiler generators        Source code generation        Runtime environments        Preprocessors        Parsers        Context specific languages        Markup languages        Extensible Markup Language (XML)        Hypertext languages        Scripting languages        Domain specific languages        Specialized application languages        API languages        Graphical user interface languages        Window managers        Command and control languages        Macro languages        Programming by example        State based definitions        Visual languages        Interface definition languages        System description languages        Design languages        Unified Modeling Language (UML)        Architecture description languages        System modeling languages        Orchestration languages        Integration frameworks        Specification languages        Development frameworks and environments        Object oriented frameworks        Software as a service orchestration systems        Integrated and visual development environments        Application specific development environments        Software configuration management and version control systems        Software libraries and repositories        Software maintenance tools        Software creation and management        Designing software        Requirements analysis        Software design engineering        Software design tradeoffs        Software implementation planning        Software design techniques        Software development process management        Software development methods        Rapid application development        Agile software development        Capability Maturity Model        Waterfall model        Spiral model        V-model        Design patterns        Risk management        Software development techniques        Software prototyping        Object oriented development        Flowcharts        Reusability        Software product lines        Error handling and recovery        Software verification and validation        Software prototyping        Operational analysis        Software defect analysis        Software testing and debugging        Fault tree analysis        Process validation        Walkthroughs        Pair programming        Use cases        Acceptance testing        Traceability        Formal software verification        Empirical software validation        Software post-development issues        Software reverse engineering        Documentation        Backup procedures        Software evolution        Software version control        Maintaining software        System administration        Collaboration in software development        Open source model        Programming teams        Algorithm design        Computer programming        Human–computer interaction        Reverse engineering        Types        Computer programming        Computational        Software patent        Firmware        System software        Device drivers        Operating systems        Utilities        Application Software        Databases        Geographic information system        Spreadsheet        Word processor        Compilers        Programming Languages        4th Dimension/4D        ABAP        ABC        ActionScript        Ada        Agilent VEE        Algol        Alice        Angelscript        Apex        APL        AppleScript        Arc        Arduino        ASP        AspectJ        Assembly        ATLAS        Augeas        AutoHotkey        AutoIt        AutoLISP        Automator        Avenue        Awk        Bash        (Visual) Basic        bc        BCPL        BETA        BlitzMax        Boo        Bourne Shell        Bro        C        C Shell        C#        C++        C++/CLI        C-Omega        Caml        Ceylon        CFML        cg        Ch        CHILL        CIL        CL (OS/400)        Clarion        Clean        Clipper        Clojure        CLU        COBOL        Cobra        CoffeeScript        ColdFusion        COMAL        Common Lisp        Coq        cT        Curl        D        Dart        DCL        DCPU-16 ASM        Delphi/Object Pascal        DiBOL   nbsp;     Dylan        E        eC        Ecl        ECMAScript        EGL        Eiffel        Elixir        Emacs Lisp        Erlang        Etoys        Euphoria        EXEC        F#        Factor        Falcon        Fancy        Fantom        Felix        Forth        Fortran        Fortress        (Visual) FoxPro        Gambas        GNU Octave        Go        Google AppsScript        Gosu        Groovy        Haskell        haXe        Heron        HPL        HyperTalk        Icon        IDL        Inform        Informix-4GL        INTERCAL        Io        Ioke        J        J#        JADE        Java        Java FX Script        JavaScript        JScript        JScript.NET        Julia        Korn Shell        Kotlin        LabVIEW        Ladder Logic        Lasso        Limbo        Lingo        Lisp        Logo        Logtalk        LotusScript        LPC        Lua        Lustre        M4        MAD        Magic        Magik        Malbolge        MANTIS        Maple        Mathematica        MATLAB        Max/MSP        MAXScript        MEL        Mercury        Mirah        Miva        ML        Monkey        Modula-2        Modula-3        MOO        Moto        MS-DOS Batch        MUMPS        NATURAL        Nemerle        Nimrod        NQC        NSIS        Nu        NXT-G        Oberon        Object Rexx        Objective-C        Objective-J        OCaml        Occam        ooc        Opa        OpenCL        OpenEdge ABL        OPL        Oz        Paradox        Parrot        Pascal        Perl        PHP        Pike        PILOT        PL/I        PL/SQL        Pliant        PostScript        POV-Ray        PowerBasic        PowerScript        PowerShell        Processing        Prolog        Puppet        Pure Data        Python        Q        R        Racket        REALBasic        REBOL        Revolution        REXX        RPG (OS/400)        Ruby        Rust        S        S-PLUS        SAS        Sather        Scala        Scheme        Scilab        Scratch        sed        Seed7        Self        Shell        SIGNAL        Simula        Simulink        Slate        Smalltalk        Smarty        SPARK        SPSS        SQR        Squeak        Squirrel        Standard ML        Suneido        SuperCollider        TACL        Tcl        Tex        thinBasic        TOM        Transact-SQL        Turing        TypeScript        Vala/Genie        VBScript        Verilog        VHDL        VimL        Visual Basic .NET        WebDNA        Whitespace        X10        xBase        XBase++        Xen        XPL        XSLT        XQuery        yacc        Yorick        Z shell        interpreters        compilers        assemblers        Speech recognition        Speech synthesis        Types of Software

2.1.12.        Business software        Accounting software

2.1.13.        Analytics        Data mining closely related to database        Decision support systems

2.1.14.        Airline reservations

2.1.15.        Banking        Automated teller machines        Cheque processing        Credit cards

2.1.16.        Commerce        Trade        Auctions (e.g. eBay)        Reverse auctions (procurement)        Bar code scanners

2.1.17.        Compilers        Parsers        Compiler optimization        Interpreters        Linkers        Loaders

2.1.18.        Communication        E-mail        Instant messengers        VOIP        Calendars — scheduling and coordinating      nbsp;  Contact managers

2.1.19.        Computer graphics        Animation        Special effects for video and film        Editing        Post-processing

2.1.20.        Cryptography

2.1.21.        Databases

2.1.22.        Embedded systems        Automotive software        Avionics software        Heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) software        Medical device software        Telephony        Telemetry

2.1.23.        Engineering        Computer Aided Design (CAD)        Electronic Design Automation (EDA)        Numerical Analysis        Simulation

2.1.24.        File        FTP        File sharing        File synchronization

2.1.25.        Finance        Bond market        Futures market        Stock market

2.1.26.        Games        Poker        Multiuser Dungeons        Video games

2.1.27.        Information systems, support almost every field        LIS Management of laboratory data        MIS Management of financial and personnel data

2.1.28.        Logistics        Supply chain management

2.1.29.        Manufacturing        Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)        Distributed Control Systems (DCS)

2.1.30.        Music        Music sequencers        Sound effects        Music synthesis

2.1.31.        Network Management        Network management system        Element Management System        Operations Support System        Business Support Systems

2.1.32.        Networks and Internet        Domain Name System        Protocols        Routers

2.1.33.        Office suites        Word processors        Spreadsheets        Presentations

2.1.34.        Operating systems        Embedded        Graphical        Multitasking        Real-time

2.1.35.        Robotics

2.1.36.        Signal processing, encoding and interpreting signals        Image processing, encoding and interpreting visual information        Speech processing        Text recognition        Handwriting recognition

2.1.37.        Simulation, supports almost every field.        Engineering, A software simulation can be cheaper to build and more flexible to change than a physical engineering model.        Sciences

2.1.38.        Sciences        Genomics

2.1.39.        Traffic Control        Air traffic control        Ship traffic control        Road traffic control

2.1.40.        Training        Drill        Simulation        Testing

2.1.41.        Visualization, supports almost every field        Architecture        Engineering        Sciences

2.1.42.        Voting

2.1.43.        World wide web        Browsers        Servers

3.        Business computing

3.1.        Accounting software

3.2.        Computer-aided design

3.3.        Computer-aided manufacturing

3.4.        Computer-assisted dispatch

3.5.        Customer relationship management

3.6.        Data warehouse

3.7.        Decision support system

3.8.        Electronic data processing

3.9.        Enterprise resource planning

3.10.        Geographic information system

3.11.        Hospital information system

3.12.        Human resource management system

3.13.        Management information system

3.14.        Material requirements planning

3.15.        Product Lifecycle Management

3.16.        Strategic enterprise management

3.17.        Supply chain management

3.18.        Utility Computing

4.        Human factors

4.1.        Accessible computing

4.2.        Computer-induced medical problems

4.3.        Computer user satisfaction

4.4.        Human-centered computing

4.5.        Interaction design

4.5.1.        Interaction design process and methods        User interface design        User centered design        Activity centered design        Scenario-based design        Participatory design        Contextual design        Interface design prototyping

4.5.2.        Interaction design theory, concepts and paradigms

4.5.3.        Empirical studies in interaction design

4.5.4.        Systems and tools for interaction design        Wireframes

4.5.5.        Collaborative and social computing        Collaborative and social computing theory, concepts and paradigms        Social content sharing        Collaborative content creation        Collaborative filtering        Social recommendation        Social networks        Social tagging        Computer supported cooperative work        Social engineering (social sciences)        Social navigation        Social media        Collaborative and social computing design and evaluation methods        Social network analysis        Ethnographic studies        Collaborative and social computing systems and tools        Blogs        Wikis        Reputation systems        Open source software        Social networking sites        Social tagging systems        Synchronous editors        Asynchronous editors        Empirical studies in collaborative and social computing        Collaborative and social computing devices

4.5.6.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing

4.5.7.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing theory, concepts and paradigms        Ubiquitous computing        Mobile computing        Ambient intelligence

4.5.8.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing systems and tools

4.5.9.        Ubiquitous and mobile devices        Smartphones        Interactive whiteboards        Mobile phones        Mobile devices        Portable media players        Personal digital assistants        Handheld game consoles        E-book readers        Tablet computers

4.5.10.        Ubiquitous and mobile computing design and evaluation methods

4.5.11.        Empirical studies in ubiquitous and mobile computing

5.        Visualization

5.1.        Visualization techniques

5.1.1.        Treemaps

5.1.2.        Hyperbolic trees

5.1.3.        Heat maps

5.1.4.        Graph drawings

5.1.5.        Dendrograms

5.1.6.        Cladograms

5.2.        Visualization application domains

5.2.1.        Scientific visualization

5.2.2.        Visual analytics

5.2.3.        Geographic visualization

5.2.4.        Information visualization

5.3.        Visualization systems and tools

5.3.1.        Visualization toolkits

5.4.        Visualization theory, concepts and paradigms

5.5.        Empirical studies in visualization

5.6.        Visualization design and evaluation methods

6.        Accessibility

6.1.        Accessibility theory, concepts and paradigms

6.2.        Empirical studies in accessibility

6.3.        Accessibility design and evaluation methods

6.4.        Accessibility technologies

6.5.        Accessibility systems and tools

6.6.        Human-computer interaction

6.6.1.        Human computer interaction (HCI)        HCI design and evaluation methods        User models        User studies        Usability testing        Heuristic evaluations        Walkthrough evaluations        Laboratory experiments        Field studies        Interaction paradigms        Hypertext / hypermedia        Mixed / augmented reality        Command line interfaces        Graphical user interfaces        Virtual reality        Web-based interaction        Natural language interfaces        Collaborative interaction        Interaction devices        Graphics input devices        Displays and imagers        Sound-based input / output        Keyboards        Pointing devices        Touch screens        Haptic devices        HCI theory, concepts and models        Interaction techniques        Auditory feedback        Text input        Pointing        Gestural input        Interactive systems and tools        User interface management systems        User interface programming        User interface toolkits        Empirical studies in HCI

6.6.2.        Styles of human–computer interaction        Command line interface        Graphical user interface (GUI)        Copy and paste, Cut and paste        Single Document Interface, Multiple Document Interface, Tabbed Document Interface        Elements of graphical user interfaces        Pointer        Widget (computing)        icons        WIMP (computing)        Point-and-click        Drag-and-drop        Window managers        WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)        Zooming user interface (ZUI)        Brushing and linking        Crossing-based interfaces

6.6.3.        General human–computer interaction concepts        accessibility and computer accessibility        adaptive autonomy        affordance        banner blindness        computer user satisfaction        contextual design and contextual inquiry        gender HCI        gulf of evaluation        gulf of execution        habituation        human action cycle        human interface device        human–machine interface        interaction        interaction technique        look and feel        mode        physiological interaction        principle of least astonishment        progressive disclosure        sonic interaction design        thanatosensitivity        transparency        usability and usability testing        user, luser        user experience and user experience design        user-friendliness        user interface and user interface design        user interface engineering and usability engineering        handheld devices    &nnbsp;   Human–computer information retrieval        Information retrieval        Internet and the World Wide Web        multimedia        Software agents        Universal usability        User experience design        Visual programming languages.        Knowbility

6.6.4.        Hardware        Hardware input/output devices and peripherals:        List of input devices        unit record equipment        barcode scanner        keyboard        computer keyboard        keyboard shortcut        ways to make typing more efficient: command history, autocomplete, autoreplace and Intellisense        microphone        pointing device        computer mouse        mouse chording        List of output devices        visual devices        graphical output device        display device        computer display        video projector        computer printer        plotter        auditory devices        speakers        earphones        tactile devices        refreshable Braille display        braille embosser        Haptic devices

6.6.5.        Interface design methods        activity-centered design        Affordance analysis        bodystorming        Contextual design        focus group        iterative design        participatory design        pictive user interface workshop method        rapid prototyping        Scenario-based design (SBD)        task analysis/task modeling        user-centered design        usage-centered design        User scenario        Value sensitive design        Wizard of Oz experiment

6.6.6.        Usability        Usability testing        heuristic evaluation        cognitive walkthrough        usability lab

7.        Hardware

7.1.        Printed circuit boards

7.1.1.        Electromagnetic interference and compatibility

7.1.2.        PCB design and layout

7.2.        Communication hardware, interfaces and storage

7.2.1.        Signal processing systems        Digital signal processing        Beamforming        Noise reduction        Sensors and actuators        Buses and high-speed links        Displays and imagers        External storage        Networking hardware        Printers        Sensor applications and deployments        Sensor devices and platforms        Sound-based input / output        Tactile and hand-based interfaces        Touch screens        Haptic devices        Scanners        Wireless devices        Wireless integrated network sensors        Electro-mechanical devices

7.2.2.        Integrated circuits        3D integrated circuits        Interconnect        Input / output circuits        Metallic interconnect        Photonic and optical interconnect        Radio frequency and wireless interconnect        Semiconductor memory        Dynamic memory        Static memory        Non-volatile memory        Read-only memory        Digital switches        Transistors        Logic families        Logic circuits        Arithmetic and datapath circuits        Asynchronous circuits        Combinational circuits        Design modules and hierarchy        Finite state machines        Sequential circuits        Reconfigurable logic and FPGAs        Hardware accelerators        High-speed input / output        Programmable logic elements        Programmable interconnect        Reconfigurable logic applications

7.2.3.        Very large scale integration design        3D integrated circuits        Analog and mixed-signal circuits        Data conversion        Clock generation and timing        Analog and mixed-signal circuit optimization        Radio frequency and wireless circuits        Wireline communication        Analog and mixed-signal circuit synthesis        Application-specific VLSI designs        Application specific integrated circuits        Application specific instruction set processors        Application specific processors        Design reuse and communication-based design        Network on chip        System on a chip        Platform-based design        Hard and soft IP        Design rules        Economics of chip design and manufacturing        Full-custom circuits        VLSI design manufacturing considerations        On-chip resource management        On-chip sensors        Standard cell libraries        VLSI packaging        Die and wafer stacking        Input / output styles        Multi-chip modules        Package-level interconnect        VLSI system specification and constraints

7.2.4.        Power and energy        Thermal issues        Temperature monitoring        Temperature simulation and estimation        Temperature control        Temperature optimization        Energy generation and storage        Batteries        Fuel-based energy        Renewable energy        Reusable energy storage        Energy distribution        Energy metering        Power conversion        Power networks        Smart grid        Impact on the environment        Power estimation and optimization        Switching devices power issues        Interconnect power issues        Circuits power issues        Chip-level power issues        Platform power issues        Enterprise level and data centers power issues

7.2.5.        Electronic design automation        High-level and register-transfer level synthesis        Datapath optimization        Hardware-software codesign        Resource binding and sharing        Operations scheduling        Hardware description languages and compilation        Logic synthesis        Combinational synthesis        Circuit optimization        Sequential synthesis        Technology-mapping        Transistor-level synthesis        Modeling and parameter extraction        Physical design (EDA)        Clock-network synthesis        Packaging        Partitioning and floorplanning        Placement        Physical synthesis        Power grid design        Wire routing        Timing analysis        Electrical-level simulation        Model-order reduction        Compact delay models        Static timing analysis        Statistical timing analysis        Transition-based timing analysis        Methodologies for EDA        Best practices for EDA        Design databases for EDA        Software tools for EDA

7.2.6.        Hardware validation        Functional verification        Model checking        Coverage metrics        Equivalence checking        Semi-formal verification        Simulation and emulation        Transaction-level verification        Theorem proving and SAT solving        Assertion checking        Physical verification        Design rule checking        Layout-versus-schematics        Power and thermal analysis        Timing analysis and sign-off        Post-manufacture validation and debug        Bug detection, localization and diagnosis        Bug fixing (hardware)        Design for debug

7.2.7.        Hardware test        Analog, mixed-signal and radio frequency test        Board- and system-level test        Defect-based test        Design for testability        Built-in self-test        Online test and diagnostics        Test data compression        Fault models and test metrics        Memory test and repair        Hardware reliability screening        Test-pattern generation and fault simulation        Testing with distributed and parallel systems

7.2.8.        Robustness        Fault tolerance        Error detection and error correction        Failure prediction        Failure recovery, maintenance and self-repair        Redundancy        Self-checking mechanisms        System-level fault tolerance        Design for manufacturability        Process variations        Yield and cost modeling        Yield and cost optimization        Hardware reliability        Aging of circuits and systems        Circuit hardening        Early-life failures and infant mortality        Process, voltage and temperature variations        Signal integrity and noise analysis        Transient errors and upsets        Safety critical systems

7.2.9.        Emerging technologies        Analysis and design of emerging devices and systems        Emerging architectures        Emerging languages and compilers        Emerging simulation        Emerging tools and methodologies        Biology-related information processing        Bio-embedded electronics        Neural systems        Circuit substrates        III-V compounds        Carbon based electronics        Cellular neural networks        Flexible and printable circuits        Superconducting circuits        Electromechanical systems        Microelectromechanical systems        Nanoelectromechanical systems        Emerging interfaces        Memory and dense storage        Emerging optical and photonic technologies        Reversible logic        Plasmonics        Quantum technologies        Single electron devices        Tunneling devices        Quantum computation        Quantum communication and cryptography        Quantum error correction and fault tolerance        Quantum dots and cellular automata        Spintronics and magnetic technologies

8.        Bioinformatics

9.        Health informatics

10.        Cheminformatics

10.1.        Unstructured data

10.1.1.        Information retrieval

10.1.2.        Information extraction

10.2.        Structured Data Mining and mining of Structured data

10.2.1.        Database mining

10.2.2.        Graph mining

10.2.3.        Molecule mining

10.2.4.        Sequence mining

10.2.5.        Tree mining

10.3.        Digital libraries

11.        Disaster informatics

12.        Geoinformatics

13.        Information science

14.        Information storage systems

14.1.        Information storage technologies

14.1.1.        Magnetic disks

14.1.2.        Magnetic tapes

14.1.3.        Optical / magneto-optical disks

14.1.4.        Storage class memory        Flash memory        Phase change memory

14.1.5.        Disk arrays

14.1.6.        Tape libraries

14.2.        Record storage systems

14.2.1.        Record storage alternatives        Heap (data structure)        Hashed file organization        Indexed file organization        Linked lists

14.2.2.        Directory structures        B-trees        Vnodes        Inodes        Extent-based file structures

14.2.3.        Block / page strategies        Slotted pages        Intrapage space management        Interpage free-space management

14.2.4.        Record layout alternatives        Fixed length attributes        Variable length attributes        Null values in records

14.2.5.        Relational storage        Horizontal partitioning        Vertical partitioning        Column based storage        Hybrid storage layouts        Compression strategies

14.2.6.        Storage replication        Mirroring        RAID        Point-in-time copies        Remote replication        Storage recovery strategies

14.2.7.        Storage architectures        Cloud based storage        Storage network architectures        Storage area networks        Direct attached storage        Network attached storage        Distributed storage

14.2.8.        Storage management        Hierarchical storage management        Storage virtualization        Information lifecycle management        Version management        Storage power management        Thin provisioning

15.        Information systems applications

15.1.        Enterprise information systems

15.1.1.        Intranets

15.1.2.        Extranets

15.1.3.        Enterprise resource planning

15.1.4.        Enterprise applications

15.1.5.        Data centers

15.2.        Collaborative and social computing systems and tools

15.2.1.        Blogs

15.2.2.        Wikis

15.2.3.        Reputation systems

15.2.4.        Open source software

15.2.5.        Social networking sites

15.2.6.        Social tagging systems

15.2.7.        Synchronous editors

15.2.8.        Asynchronous editors

15.3.        Spatial-temporal systems

15.3.1.        Location based services

15.3.2.        Geographic information systems

15.3.3.        Sensor networks

15.3.4.        Data streaming

15.3.5.        Global positioning systems

15.4.        Decision support systems

15.4.1.        Data warehouses

15.4.2.        Expert systems

15.4.3.        Data analytics

15.4.4.        Online analytical processing

15.5.        Mobile information processing systems

15.6.        Process control systems

15.7.        Multimedia information systems

15.7.1.        Multimedia databases

15.7.2.        Multimedia streaming

15.7.3.        Multimedia content creation

15.7.4.        Massively multiplayer online games

15.8.        Data mining

15.8.1.        Data cleaning

15.8.2.        Collaborative filtering

15.8.3.        Association rules

15.8.4.        Clustering

15.8.5.        Nearest-neighbor search

15.8.6.        Data stream mining

15.9.        Digital libraries and archives

15.10.        Computational advertising

15.11.        Computing platforms

15.12.        Information retrieval

15.12.1.        Document representation        Document structure        Document topic models        Content analysis and feature selection        Data encoding and canonicalization        Document collection models        Ontologies        Dictionaries        Thesauri

15.12.2.        Information retrieval query processing        Query representation        Query intent        Query log analysis        Query suggestion        Query reformulation

15.12.3.        Users and interactive retrieval        Personalization        Task models        Search interfaces        Collaborative search

15.12.4.        Retrieval models and ranking        Rank aggregation        Probabilistic retrieval models        Language models        Similarity measures        Learning to rank        Combination, fusion and federated search        Information retrieval diversity        Top-k retrieval in databases        Novelty in information retrieval

15.12.5.        Retrieval tasks and goals        Question answering        Document filtering        Recommender systems        Information extraction        Sentiment analysis        Expert search        Near-duplicate and plagiarism detection        Clustering and classification        Summarization        Business intelligence

15.12.6.        Evaluation of retrieval results        Test collections        Relevance assessment        Retrieval effectiveness        Retrieval efficiency        Presentation of retrieval results

15.12.7.        Search engine architectures and scalability        Search engine indexing        Search index compression        Distributed retrieval        Peer-to-peer retrieval        Retrieval on mobile devices        Adversarial retrieval        Link and co-citation analysis        Searching with auxiliary databases

15.12.8.        Specialized information retrieval        Structure and multilingual text search        Structured text search        Mathematics retrieval        Chemical and biochemical retrieval        Multilingual and cross-lingual retrieval        Multimedia and multimodal retrieval        Image search        Video search        Speech / audio search        Music retrieval        Environment-specific retrieval        Enterprise search        Desktop search        Web and social media search

16.        Web sciences

17.        World Wide Web

17.1.        Web searching and information discovery

17.1.1.        Web search engines        Web crawling        Web indexing        Page and site ranking        Spam detection

17.1.2.        Content ranking

17.1.3.        Collaborative filtering

17.1.4.        Social recommendation

17.1.5.        Personalization

17.1.6.        Social tagging

17.2.        Online advertising

17.2.1.        Sponsored search advertising

17.2.2.        Content match advertising

17.2.3.        Display advertising

17.2.4.        Social advertising

17.3.        Web mining

17.3.1.        Site wrapping

17.3.2.        Data extraction and integration        Deep web        Surfacing        Search results deduplication

17.3.3.        Web log analysis

17.3.4.        Traffic analysis

17.4.        Web applications

17.4.1.        Internet communications tools        Email        Blogs        Texting        Chat        Web conferencing

17.4.2.        Social networks

17.4.3.        Crowdsourcing        Answer ranking        Trust        Incentive schemes        Reputation systems

17.4.4.        Electronic commerce        Digital cash        E-commerce infrastructure        Electronic data interchange        Electronic funds transfer        Online shopping        Online banking        Secure online transactions        Online auctions

17.5.        Web interfaces

17.5.1.        Wikis

17.5.2.        Browsers

17.5.3.        Mashups

17.6.        Web services

17.6.1.        Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)

17.6.2.        RESTful web services

17.6.3.        Web Services Description Language (WSDL)

17.6.4.        Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)

17.6.5.        Service discovery and interfaces

17.7.        Web data description languages

17.7.1.        Semantic we7b description languages        Resource Description Framework (RDF)        Web Ontology Language (OWL)

17.7.2.        Markup languages        Extensible Markup Language (XML) &nbnbsp;      Hypertext languages

18.        Management information system (MIS)

19.        Formative context

20.        Data processing

21.        History of computing hardware from the tally stick to the quantum computer

21.1.        History of computer science

21.2.        Punched card

21.3.        Unit record equipment

21.4.        IBM 700/7000 series

21.5.        IBM 1400 series

21.6.        IBM System/360

21.7.        History of IBM magnetic disk drives

22.        Other data topics

22.1.        Data compression

22.2.        Digital signal processing

22.3.        Image processing

22.4.        Data management

22.5.        Routing

22.6.        Data Protection Act

23.        Organizations

23.1.        Professional

23.1.1.        Association for Computing Machinery (ACM)

23.1.2.        Association for Survey Computing (ASC)

23.1.3.        British Computer Society (BCS)

23.1.4.        Canadian Information Processing Society (CIPS)

23.1.5.        Computer Measurement Group (CMG)

23.1.6.        Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), in particular the IEEE Computer Society

23.1.7.        Institution of Electrical Engineers

23.1.8.        International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

23.2.        Standards bodies

23.2.1.        International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

23.2.2.        International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

23.2.3.        Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

23.2.4.        Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

23.2.5.        World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

23.3.        Open standards

23.3.1.        Apdex Alliance – Application Performance Index

23.3.2.        Application Response Measurement (ARM)        Applied computing        Electronic commerce        Digital cash        E-commerce infrastructure        Electronic data interchange        Electronic funds transfer        Online shopping        Online banking        Secure online transactions        Online auctions        Enterprise computing        Enterprise information systems        Intranets        Extranets        Enterprise resource planning        Enterprise applications        Data centers        Business process management        Business process modeling        Business process management systems        Business process monitoring        Cross-organizational business processes        Business intelligence        Enterprise architectures        Enterprise architecture management        Enterprise architecture frameworks        Enterprise architecture modeling        Service-oriented architectures        Event-driven architectures        Business rules        Enterprise modeling        Enterprise ontologies, taxonomies and vocabularies        Enterprise data management        Reference models        Business-IT alignment        IT architectures        IT governance        Enterprise computing infrastructures        Enterprise interoperability        Enterprise application integration        Information integration and interoperability        Physical sciences and engineering        Aerospace        Avionics        Archaeology        Astronomy        Chemistry        Earth and atmospheric sciences        Environmental sciences        Engineering        Computer-aided design        Physics        Mathematics and statistics        Electronics        Avionics        Telecommunications        Internet telephony        Life and medical sciences        Computational biology        Molecular sequence analysis        Recognition of genes and regulatory elements        Molecular evolution        Computational transcriptomics        Biological networks        Sequencing and genotyping technologies        Imaging        Computational proteomics        Molecular structural biology        Computational genomics        Genomics        Computational genomics        Systems biology        Consumer health        Health care information systems        Health informatics        Bioinformatics        Metabolomics / metabonomics        Genetics        Population genetics        Proteomics        Computational proteomics        Transcriptomics        Law, social and behavioral sciences        Anthropology        Ethnography        Law        Psychology        Economics        Sociology        Computer forensics        Surveillance mechanisms        Investigation techniques        Evidence collection, storage and analysis        Network forensics        System forensics        Data recovery        Arts and humanities        Fine arts        Performing arts        Architecture (buildings)        Computer-aided design        Language translation        Media arts        Sound and music computing        Computers in other domains        Digital libraries and archives        Publishing        Military        Cyberwarfare        Cartography        Agriculture        Computing in government        Voting / election technologies        E-government        Personal computers and PC applications        Word processors        Spreadsheets        Computer games        Microcomputers        Operations research        Consumer products        Industry and manufacturing        Supply chain management        Command and control        Computer-aided manufacturing        Decision analysis        Transportation        Forecasting        Marketing        Education        Digital libraries and archives        Computer-assisted instruction        Interactive learning environments        Collaborative learning        Learning management systems        Distance learning        E-learning        Computer-managed instruction        Document management and text processing        Document searching        Document management        Text editing        Version control        Document metadata        Document capture        Document analysis        Document scanning        Graphics recognition and interpretation        Optical character recognition        Online handwriting recognition        Document preparation        Markup languages        Extensible Markup Language (XML)        Hypertext languages        Annotation        Format and notation        Multi / mixed media creation        Image composition        Hypertext / hypermedia creation        Document scripting languages

24.        Social and professional topics

24.1.        Professional topics

24.1.1.        Computing industry        Industry statistics        Computer manufacturing        Sustainability

24.1.2.        Management of computing and information systems        Project and people management        Project management techniques        Project staffing        Systems planning        Systems analysis and design        Systems development        Computer and information systems training        Implementation management        Hardware selection        Computing equipment management        Pricing and resource allocation        Software management        Software maintenance        Software selection and adaptation        System management        Centralization / decentralization        Technology audits        Quality assurance        Network operations        File systems management        Information system economics

24.1.3.        History of computing        Historical people        History of hardware        History of software        History of programming languages        History of computing theory

24.1.4.        Computing education        Computational thinking        Accreditation        Model curricula        Computing education programs        Information systems education        Computer science education        CS1        Computer engineering education        Information technology education        Information science education        Computational science and engineering education        Software engineering education        Informal education        Computing literacy        Student assessment        K-12 education        Adult education

24.1.5.        Computing and business        Employment issues        Automation        Computer supported cooperative work        Economic impact        Offshoring        Reengineering        Socio-technical systems

24.1.6.        Computing profession        Codes of ethics        Employment issues   nbsp;     Funding        Computing occupations        Computing organizations        Testing, certification and licensing        Assistive technologies

24.2.        Computing / technology policy

24.2.1.        Intellectual property        Digital rights management        Copyrights        Software reverse engineering        Patents        Trademarks        Internet governance / domain names        Licensing        Treaties        Database protection laws        Secondary liability        Soft intellectual property        Hardware reverse engineering

24.2.2.        Privacy policies

24.2.3.        Censorship        Pornography        Hate speech        Political speech        Technology and censorship        Censoring filters

24.2.4.        Surveillance        Governmental surveillance        Corporate surveillance        Commerce policy        Taxation        Transborder data flow        Antitrust and competition        Governmental regulations        Online auctions policy        Consumer products policy        Network access control        Censoring filters        Broadband access        Net neutrality        Network access restrictions        Age-based restrictions        Acceptable use policy restrictions        Universal access        Computer crime        Social engineering attacks        Spoofing attacks        Phishing        Identity theft        Financial crime        Malware / spyware crime        Government technology policy        Governmental regulations        Import / export controls        Medical information policy        Medical records        Personal health records        Genetic information        Patient privacy        Health information exchanges        Medical technologies        Remote medicine

24.2.5.        User characteristics        Race and ethnicity        Religious orientation        Gender        Men        Women

24.2.6.        Sexual orientation

24.2.7.        People with disabilities

24.2.8.        Geographic characteristics

24.2.9.        Cultural characteristics

24.2.10.        Age        Children        Seniors        Adolescents

25.        Proper nouns: People, technologies and companies

25.1.        Companies

25.1.1.        Accenture

25.1.2.        Adobe Systems Incorporated

25.1.3.        Advanced Information Systems

25.1.4.        Agere Systems, Inc.

25.1.5.        Agilent Technologies

25.1.6.        Alcatel-Lucent        Bell Labs

25.1.7.        AOL, Inc.

25.1.8.        Apple, Inc.

25.1.9.        AT&T

25.1.10.        BAE Systems

25.1.11.        BEA Systems, Inc.

25.1.12.        Blizzard Entertainment

25.1.13.        Blue Sky Studios

25.1.14.        Borland Software Corporation

25.1.15.        CA Technologies

25.1.16.        Cable & Wireless Worldwide

25.1.17.        Cadence Design Systems

25.1.18.        China Telecom Corporation Limited

25.1.19.        Cisco Systems, Inc.

25.1.20.        Citrix Systems, Inc.

25.1.21.        Commerce One

25.1.22.        Compaq Computer Corporation

25.2.        Corel Corporation

25.2.1.        Dell Computer Corporation

25.2.2.        DiamondCluster International, Inc.

25.2.3.        Digital Equipment Corporation

25.3.        eBay Inc.

25.3.1.        EIS, Inc.

25.3.2.        EMC Corporation

25.3.3.        Ericsson

25.3.4.        Ernst & Young

25.3.5.        Forrester Research

25.3.6.        Gartner Group

25.3.7.        General Dynamics

25.3.8.        General Electric

25.3.9.        Google Inc.

25.3.10.        Hewlett-Packard Company        HP Labs

25.3.11.        Infineon Technologies

25.3.12.        Infusion

25.3.13.        Intel Corporation

25.3.14.        International Business Machines Corporation        IBM Almaden Research Center        The IBM Toronto Software Lab

25.3.15.        International Data Corporation (IDC)

25.3.16.        Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers

25.3.17.        Iona Technologies

25.3.18.        ITSS, Inc.

25.3.19.        Juniper Networks

25.3.20.        Lockheed Martin Corporation

25.3.21.        Macromedia

25.4.        McKinsey & Company

25.4.1.        Microsoft Corporation

25.4.2.        Motorola, Inc.

25.4.3.        Motorola Mobility, Inc.

25.4.4.        Motorola Solutions, Inc.

25.5.        Mozilla Corporation

25.5.1.        National Instruments Corporation

25.5.2.        Nokia Corporation

25.5.3.        Nortel Networks Corporation

25.5.4.        Novell, Inc.

25.5.5.        NVIDIA Corporation

25.6.        Oracle Corporation

25.6.1.        Sun Microsystems

25.6.2.        Philips Semiconductors

25.6.3.        NXP Semiconductors

25.6.4.        Pixar Animation Studios

25.6.5.        Quest Software, Inc.

25.6.6.        Rational Software Corporation

25.6.7.        Research in Motion Limited        RSA

25.7.        SANS Institute

25.7.1.        SAS Institute, Inc.

25.7.2.        Sega Corporation

25.7.3.        Siemens AG

25.7.4.        Silicon Graphics, Inc.

25.7.5.        Sony Corporation

25.7.6.        SRI International

25.7.7.        Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation

25.7.8.        Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Limited

25.7.9.        Telcordia Technologies

25.7.10.        Texas Instruments Inc.

25.8.        The Standish Group International, Inc.

25.8.1.        Toshiba Corporation

25.8.2.        Virage Logic

25.9.        Virtual University Enterprises

25.9.1.        Xerox Corporation        PARC

25.9.2.        Yahoo! Inc.

25.9.3.        Zilog, Inc.                                                                          

26.        Organizations

26.1.        ABET, Inc.

26.1.1.        Computing Accreditation Commission

26.2.        American Mathematical Society

26.3.        American National Standards Institute

26.4.        American Statistical Association

26.5.        Ames Research Center

26.6.        Apache Software Foundation

26.6.1.        Argonne National Laboratory

26.7.        Association for Computing Machinery

26.7.1.        Association for Information Systems

26.8.        Brazilian Computer Society

26.8.1.        British Computer Society

26.8.2.        Clay Mathematics Institute

26.8.3.        Charles Babbage Institute

26.8.4.        Computer History Museum

26.8.5.        Computer Press Association        Computing Community Consortium        Computing Research Association

26.8.6.        Computing Technology Industry Association        Computer Science Teachers Association

26.8.7.        Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences

26.8.8.        CSAB        Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency        Eclipse Foundation        Electronic Frontier Foundation

26.8.9.        Electronic  Visualization Laboratory        European Network and Information Security Agency        European Telecommunications Standards Institute        Federal Communications Commission

26.8.10.        Free Software Foundation

26.8.11.        Human Factors and Ergonomics Society        IEEE Computer Society        Test Technology Technical Council

26.8.12.        International Computer Music Association                                        

26.8.13.        International Game Developers Association

26.8.14.        International Organization for Standardization

26.8.15.        International Software Benchmarking Standards Group Limited        ITU        Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences        JISC

26.8.16.        Jet Propulsion Laboratory

26.8.17.        Joint Photographic Experts Group        Langley Research Center        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory        Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory        Linux Professional Institute        London Mathematical Society        Los Alamos National Laboratory

26.8.18.        Massachusetts Institute of Technology        MIT Media Lab        Personal Robots Group        Max Planck Institutes        Moving Picture Experts Group

26.8.19.        Mozilla Foundation

26.8.20.        National Academy of Engineering

26.8.21.        National Academy of Sciences

26.8.22.        National Center for Education Statistics        National Institute of Standards and Technology

26.8.23.        National Institutes of Health        National Research Council        National Science Foundation        Oak Ridge National Laboratory        Object Management Group

26.8.24.        Open Network Laboratory        OSGi Alliance        Operational Research Society

26.8.25.        Open Knowledge Society        Open Source Initiative        Pacific Northwest National Laboratory        Patent and Trademark Office                                    Royal Statistical Society        San Diego Supercomputer Center

26.8.26.        Sandia National Laboratories        Semiconductor Industry Association        Software Engineering Institute        SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory        Systems Research Center

26.8.27.        TDWI        The Open Group

26.8.28.        Transaction Processing Performance Council

26.8.29.        Trusted Computing Group                                        Viewpoints Research Institute        Wikimedia Foundation, Inc.        World Intellectual Property Organization        World Wide Web Consortium

27.        People in computing

28.        van Wijngaarden

28.1.        Ada Lovelace

28.2.        Alan Cooper    

28.2.1.        Alan Curtis Kay

28.2.2.        Alan J. Perlis        Alan Mathison Turing        Allen Kent        Allen Newell

28.2.3.        An'an Wang &nbnbsp;      Andrew S. Grove        Barbara Liskov        Barry W. Boehm        Bill Gates        Bill Joy        Bill Millard        Bjarne Stroustrup

28.2.4.        Blaise Pascal        Bruce Schneier

29.        A. R. Hoare

29.1.        Charles Babbage

29.2.        Charles Tandy

29.3.        Claude Elwood Shannon

29.4.        Clive Sinclair

29.4.1.        Cyril W. Cleverdon        David Hilbert

29.4.2.        David Patterson

29.4.3.        David Sarnoff        Donald Ervin Knuth        Douglas R. Hofstadter        Edmund Callis Berkeley        Edvard Scheutz

29.4.4.        Elliot Irving Organick        Gary McGraw        Georg Scheutz

29.4.5.        Gene H. Golub        Gordon Bell        Grace Murray Hopper        H. D. Goode        Harry H. Goode        Harvey M. Deitel        Herbert A. Simon        Herbert R. J. Grosch        Herman H. Goldstine

29.4.6.        Herman Hollerith

29.4.7.        Ivar Jacobson

29.4.8.        James Gosling

29.4.9.        J. H. Wilkinson        J. Presper Eckert        J. Richard Buchi        Jakob Nielsen

29.4.10.        Jay Wright Forrester        Jim Blinn        Jim Gray

29.4.11.        John Vincent Atanasoff        John Cocke

29.4.12.        John McCarthy        John R. Pasta        John Sculley        John Von Neumann        John W. Mauchly        Jon Kleinberg

29.4.13.        Kazimierz Kuratowski        Kent Beck

29.4.14.        Konrad Zuse        Kurt Godel

29.4.15.        Linus Torvalds        Marian Smoluchowski

29.4.16.        Mark D. Weiser

29.4.17.        Martin Fowler        Marvin Lee Minsky        Maurice V. Wilkes

29.4.18.        Peter J. Denning

29.4.19.        Peter Norton        R. Milner

29.4.20.        Richard M. Karp        Robert R. Everett

29.4.21.        Seymour Papert

29.4.22.        Stefan Banach        Steve Jobs        Thomas J. Watson        Thomas Watson, Jr.        Vannevar Bush        William C. Norris

30.        Technologies

30.1.        ActionScript

30.2.        ActiveX

30.3.        Ada language

30.4.        ANSI C                                

30.5.        Ajax

30.6.        AppleScript

30.7.        AutoCAD

30.8.        BASIC

30.9.        Bluetooth

30.10.        Business Process Execution Language

30.11.        CDMA systems

30.12.        Cell Broadband Engine

30.13.        CMOS

30.14.        CORBA

30.15.        Datalog

30.16.        DB2

30.17.        DNS (Domain Name System)

30.18.        DOS

30.19.        Dreamweaver

30.20.        DSL

30.21.        DSM

30.21.1.        DVDs

30.21.2.        Eclipse

30.21.3.        Ethernet

30.21.4.        Excel

30.21.5.        CD-ROMs

30.21.6.        Facebook

30.21.7.        Internet Explorer

30.21.8.        Chrome

30.21.9.        Firefox

30.21.10.        Flickr

30.21.11.        Fortran

30.22.        FreeBSD

30.23.        Gmail

30.23.1.        Google Earth

30.23.2.        Google

30.23.3.        Google Maps

30.23.4.        Google Scholar

30.23.5.        GSM

30.24.        Haskell

30.24.1.        HDTV

30.24.2.        HP-UX

30.24.3.        InfiniBand

30.25.        IP Multimedia Subsystem

30.26.        Apple

30.26.1.        iPhone

30.26.2.        iPod

30.26.3.        IPTV

30.26.4.        IPv6

30.27.        JAVA ME

30.27.1.        JavaScript

30.27.2.        JPEG

30.27.3.        JSP

30.27.4.        LAPACK

30.27.5.        Linux

30.27.6.        Lotus Notes

30.27.7.        Macintosh OS

30.27.8.        Macintosh

30.27.9.        Mathematica

30.27.10.        MATLAB

30.28.        MIMO Systems

30.28.1.        Mobile IP

30.28.2.        WiMAX

30.28.3.        MODIS

30.28.4.        MP3

30.28.5.        MS-DOS

30.29.        MSN (portal)

30.30.        Myspace

30.30.1.        MySQL

30.30.2.        NetWare

30.31.        OFDM System

30.32.        Office

30.32.1.        OpenMP

30.32.2.        Oracle Database

30.32.3.        Outlook

30.32.4.        PDF

30.32.5.        Pentium

30.33.        Photoshop

30.34.        PlanetLab

30.34.1.        Pocket PC

30.35.        PowerPC

30.35.1.        PowerPoint

30.35.2.        Prolog

30.35.3.        QuarkXPress

30.35.4.        QuickBooks

30.35.5.        Quicken

30.35.6.        QuickTime

30.35.7.        Ruby on Rails

30.35.8.        RISC processors

30.35.9.        Samba

30.36.        SELinux

30.36.1.        SharePoint

30.37.        SIMD architectures

30.37.1.        Simulink

30.37.2.        Smalltalk

30.37.3.        Short Message Service

30.37.4.        SNMP

30.37.5.        Solaris

30.38.        SONET

30.38.1.        SPARC

30.38.2.        SQL Server

30.38.3.        Secure Sockets Layer

30.38.4.        Skype

30.39.        TMS320C

30.39.1.        Transport Layer Security

30.40.        TREC

30.40.1.        Twitter

30.40.2.        UMTS

30.41.        Unicode

30.41.1.        Usenet

30.41.2.        UWB

30.41.3.        VHDL

30.42.        Visual Basic

30.42.1.        VMware

30.42.2.        VoiceXML

30.42.3.        VRML

30.42.4.        Wifi

30.42.5.        Wikipedia

30.42.6.        Windows

30.42.7.        Windows environment

30.42.8.        WordNet

30.42.9.        X-Window

30.42.10.        X3D

30.42.11.        XILINX

30.43.        Yahoo! (portal)

30.43.1.        YouTube

30.43.2.        ZigBee

Credits: ACM Computing Classification, Wiki, Fields of Research