Investigation of the Effect of Emotional Brand on Customer's Loyalty

London Journal of Research in Management and Business
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Ali Shayesteh , Somayeh Hashemi, Masoud keimasi
Classification: JEL Code: L81
Keywords: satisfaction, quality of services, loyalty, emotional brand.
Language: English

In today's competitive world, customers are the central point of each occupation and their loyalty to a specific brand is considered as a good advantage of those companies enmeshed in a competition for providing more capitals especially banks. Beside the importance of the brand, one of the fundamental methods of creating loyalty to a specific brand is to improve the quality of the service and customer's satisfaction from the banks. Therefore, brand communication is consisted of a powerful paradigm which works as a mechanism to entangle the customers in an honest and perpetual relation. This study is done with the purpose of investigating the effect of emotional bond on customer's relation with the public banks. This paper studies the emotional effect by defining an analytical model which combines different variables. The method of this research is descriptive. The samples are selected from the banks' customers who use banks' services directly and indirectly. The number of the sample with regard to the unlimited sources is 387 persons. The sampling is wholly accidental. The tool of gathering the information has been questioners for which Cronbach's alpha coefficients has been used to calculate the results properly. Also, for narrative testing, content narrative and structural narrative have been used; for testing the research hypotheses, normal testing with regard to SPSS software version 23 has been conducted and for the analysis of the confirmatory factor and structural equation modeling, LISREL software and SMART PLS have been used. The results show that firstly, all the hypotheses other than the relation between the customer's emotion and loyalty have been confirmed and secondly, it had a positive effect on customer's relation with the banks. Moreover, the results show that there exists no direct relation between the emotional attraction and loyalty to bank. However, there exists a direct relation among customer's satisfaction, loyalty, emotional attraction and quality of banks services.

               

Investigation of the Effect of Emotional Brand on Customer's Loyalty

Somayeh Hashemiα, Ali shayestehσ &  Masoud keimasiρ

____________________________________________

  1. ABSTRACT

In today's competitive world, customers are the central point of each occupation, and their loyalty to a specific brand is considered as a good advantage of those companies enmeshed in a competition for providing more capitals especially banks. Besides, the importance of the brand, one of the fundamental methods of creating loyalty to a specific brand is to improve the quality of the service and customer's satisfaction from the banks. Therefore, brand communication is consists of a powerful paradigm which works as a mechanism to entangle the customers in an honest and perpetual relation. This study is done with the purpose of investigating the effect of emotional bond on customer's relation with the public banks. This paper studies the emotional effect by defining an analytical model which combines different variables. The method of this research is descriptive. The samples are selected from the banks' customers who use banks' services directly and indirectly. The number of the sample about the unlimited sources is 387 persons. The sampling is wholly accidental. The tool of gathering the information has been questioners for which Cronbach's alpha coefficients has been used to calculate the results properly. Also, for narrative testing, content narrative and structural narrative have been used; for testing the research hypotheses, normal testing about SPSS software version 23 has been conducted     and for the analysis  of  the confirmatory factor and    structural    equation    modeling,    LISREL

Author α σ: Master of Financial Management.

ρ: Department of Business Administration, University of Tehran University Management.

software and SMART PLS have been used. The results show that firstly, all the hypotheses other than the relation between the customer's emotion and loyalty have been confirmed and secondly, it had a positive effect on customer's relation with the banks. Moreover, the results show that there exists no direct relation between the emotional attraction and loyalty to the bank. However, there exists a direct relation among customer's satisfaction, loyalty, emotional attraction and quality of banks services.

Keywords: satisfaction, quality of services, loyalty, emotional brand.

  1. INTRODUCTION       

In today's competitive world among different banks, due to the high cost of marketing, low level of knowledge and the lack of loyalty among the customers, the marketing managers are forced to optimize their marketing systems. In this regard, the perpetual relationship between the banks and the customers has prime gain importance (Morgan and Hunt, 1994) which then leads to increasing the level of mutual loyalty between the customer and the bankers. Presently, banks have tried to promote their level of services to customers by paying their monetary costs which consequently leads to a powerful bond between the customer and the banker. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of emotional bond on customer's making decision and level of loyalty. In other words, the formulation of a trustful relationship with a special brand will lead to its support (Thomson et al, 2005). In this respect, two important questions are answered in this regard. First, will the formulation of an emotional bond between having any effect on the customer's loyalty considering banking services? Second, which of the following emotional factors including customer's satisfaction or the quality of banking service will have a more effect on increasing the customer's loyalty? Upon studying the previous articles, it is concluded that customer's satisfaction and the quality of banking service is the most important factor in increasing the customer's loyalty t (Szymanski and Henrad, 2001). Even, some research give the sole priority to the customer's satisfaction for maintaining the customer's loyalty (Lam et al., 2004) especially in today's technological age in which the banking industry has become digitalized (Kassim and Abdullah, 2008), (Levy, 2014).

  1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Boniker and Dersler (2004) have shown in a research entitled (recognizing and ranking the most important factors on maintaining loyalty in Business Corporation by utilizing the method of multi-criteria decision-making) that three different factors of physical-environmental, loyalty and employer's competency have a close relationship with the customer's loyalty. Between ranking, the factors and the three selected methods exists a considerable difference which does not exist between the rankings of effectual factors on the different methods.

Tayler et al (2004) have conducted a study about the importance of the value of the bond on maintaining customer's loyalty. And it was concluded that the value of the brand and loyalty are the two most important backgrounds of the trustful behavioral customer.

Sech et al (2006) have done a research entitled "Do brands exist forever? How the knowledge and the bond affect the present and future purchases?" and formed a comprehensive research that includes knowledge on the brand and the perspectives of customers toward each other so as to show the effect of knowledge and communication upon the customer's present and future purchases. The results show that the customer's present purchase is directly affected by the image of the brand and indirectly affected by the knowledge of the customer toward its brand. On the contrary, customer's future purchase is affected by his knowledge of the brand through communication with other customers. In this research, the communication with the customers consists of three elements of loyalty to the brand, satisfaction of the brand and depending on the brand.

Dand et al (2008) in an article entitled "comprehension of customer's loyalty and satisfaction" have dealt with a model which presents factors such as loyalty, quality of service, the comprehended quality (function, emotional, sociological and financial) and the cost of change as the effective model in customer's loyalty and satisfaction. Sahin et al (2011) in a research  entitled "the investigation of the effect of the experience of brand, the loyalty to brand and the satisfaction of brand in creating emotional bond" have reached the conclusion that experience of brand has a positive effect on the satisfaction of the brand, the loyalty of brand and the creation of its emotional bond.

Dehdashti et al. (2010) have conducted a research entitled "a model for evaluating the effect of the bank competency in creating loyalty and emotional bond with the customers." The resultant data shows that the loyalty competency has a prominent role in improving the tendency of customer's behaviors. In another word, increasing the customer's satisfaction leads to customer's advertising the brand to others and their low possibility to change their bank.

Jalali et al (2011) in a research entitled "the investigation of the effectual factors in maintaining the brand and their constant purchase" concluded that the comprehend values, the comprehended quality, the special value as a dependable variable, the satisfaction of customers, emotional and perpetual commitment as  an  intermediary  variable has a direct effect on

the loyalty and the tendency of constant purchase of a special brand.

  1. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 

4.1  The Significance of the Research

One of the prominent features of this age is the constant development which occurs in sociological, cultural, political and economic situations. Under such difficult circumstances, those banks succeed which gains the satisfaction of their customers. Recently, the development of the relation between the customer and the brand has taken banker's considerable attention. The brand has become an important tool in creating a relation with the customer in a management system. Moreover, due to two factors, it has gained such importance. First, it decreases the risk of a consumer. Secondly, it saves the extra costs in decision-making. Also, the brand is an effectual sign in the market that the organization utilizes it due to the incommensurability of information in the market. Not only does the incommensurability of the information exist among the customers but also it exists in the providing services to the customers and inflicts harms to the customers. In this respect, banks try to avoid the customer's mistrust by provides his/her needs and commitments to the customer regarding to the services presented. If the customers become dismayed of a special brand, all the bank's endeavors would become futile. Therefore, brand has worked like a lever and encouraged the banks to properly fulfill their commitments. In a long term relation, the brand induces the customers and the bankers to fulfill their mutual responsibilities. As a result, the brand can work as a defensive instrument to keep the customers. Also, it works like an invasive tool to find new customers. Thus, marketing, in its developmental stage, is not only limited to seeking new customer but also expanded to managing the demands and maintaining the customers. Nowadays, customer's satisfaction is not enough but the organizations should direct their attention to customer' loyalty to their brand. In this paradigm, the aim of making a long-term connection between the customer and the interested group is based on maintaining the customer for a long time so as to increase the organization's share and profit in the market (Samadi, 2009). In this respect, one of the main concepts of marketing is the creating loyalty for the brand. This perspective plays a dominant role in creating long-term interest for the organization. In this regard, this should be noted that the long-term customers do not need copious efforts whereas they gladly accept to pay the higher payment for their favorite brand. As such, brand, by emphasizing on creating loyalty, helps the organization to strategically establish them for future.

In recent studies, as have investigated the emotional brand on managing the brand. As it reveals, until now, enough attention has not been paid to the banking system especially about its services. The aim of this research is to study and formulate a comprehensive model for exploring the effects of different variants on the customer's loyalty. This model experiments on a small sample, and then its conclusion is presented to be used in banking system. The present research aims at exploring the emotional effects on maintaining the customer's loyalty based on three criteria of satisfaction, loyalty and the quality of the service. As such, this study tries to determine those emotional variants which can be effective in increasing the levels of customer's loyalty on banking services. It is of highest importance for the bankers' success to pay attention to this competitive world. Therefore, this study explores the customer's decision making with a new perspective so as to present a delightful model for studying those effective variants on customer's decision making toward a specific brand.

4.2  Brand and Its Importance   

The brand is a name, phrase, expression, sign, symbol, design or a combination of these elements which has the aim of introducing a commodity or service to the customers and consequently distinguishes one's commodities and services from the other one. Brand adds some features to a specific commodity or service so as to make it distinguished from the other ones (Catler and Color, 2006). Experience has shown that a powerful brand can work as a decisive instrument in determining the company's aims and improving the customer's loyalty by decreasing customer's risk of choice (Raj Devasagayam and Cheryl L. Buff, 2010). David Riker in his book Formulation of a Powerful Brand has explored the processes needed for formulating a powerful brand by focusing on its identity. In another word, he believes that recognizing a basic brand can be considered as base of formulating a powerful brand. In fact, by knowing what we are producing, we can never succeed in competitive and dynamic business world whereas knowing the status of our rivals in the industry is of high importance. Achieving a considerable share of the market is not an easy task for any company or organization. Nowadays, most of national and international companies instead of calculating their share in the market, try to work on two factors of customer's mind and emotions. Customer's mind is in fact the first place in which the brand can be inscribed forever.  

As an example, when it is asked from a customer of the quality of banking services, the first brand he names is the share of his mind. Customer's share of mind or the expansion of customer's knowledge or the generalizations of its brand are all the targets of advertising for a specific brand. However, customer's emotion of more importance comparing with his share of mind, and it is decisive in distinguishing a specific brand in comparison with other brands. Altogether, these two factors are of more importance in the direction of making a brand. Emotional part makes an emotional connection between the customer and the brand or any of its subsets including retail, wholesale, teams, entrepreneurs and service providers. Indeed, different companies try to determine to what extent customers remembers their brands and prefer is to other brands.

4.3  Customer's Loyalty in the Service Section

In the last decade, the creation and maintenance of customer's loyalty have been considered a necessary strategy (Ganesh et al., 2000). Customer's loyalty play a major role in the method of marketing (Christopher et al., 2004) which can help the profitability and the maintenance of the company (Ganesh et al, 2000), because it can predict nonconsumers behavior (Richhel 1993; Uknox and Dension, 2000). The concept of customer-orientation has been discussed previously and customer's loyalty was considered an important factor for purchasing the commodities (Oliver, 1999). The trustful customer has a more pleasant perspective toward the provided services (Sarinivasan, 2002) and more tended to introduce the commodity to other people (Reenazts and Kumar, 2002). Therefore, it should be dealt with the consumer's pleasant perspective and behavior and also paid enough attention to their suggestions. Loyalty can be defined as the existence of a positive perspective toward a phenomenon (brand, service) and a supportive view toward it. Moreover, there exists a complete definition of loyalty which is defined in this way: "Loyalty is a powerful commitment to repurchase a production or a service in the future when that production or brand is preferred on the existence of copious advertising on other productions." Mostly, two predominant views exist about the concept of loyalty. First, a person's emotional perspective toward a specific organization, service or commodity which leads to purchasing that specific commodity or service can be considered as the first view. Such feeling determines the level of customer's loyalty in the commodity which is deduced from his/her recognition of the commodity.

The factors of loyalty consist of mouth to mouth advertising, a tendency to advising and encouraging others to purchase the commodity. The behavioral perspective shows customer's tendency for the services or the commodities produced and maintaining the connection with the provider of the service or the commodity. Trusting on a specific brand shows the tendency toward that specific brand which can be expressed by the consumer's first choice of purchase. The loyal customers feel committed to purchase a specific brand. This commitment guarantees the perpetual purchase of the service or the commodity. American Marketing Association defines trusting on a brand in this way; "an advantage which insistes the customer to purchase a commodity from different suppliers, purchase it from a specific brand. Also, it is indicated by the customer's enthusiastic behavior toward purchasing a commodity from a specific brand repeatedly. This behavior leads to a process of decision making which inadvertently erase the names of other brands from the mind of customer due to his enthusiastic tendency toward a specific brand. Such reaction is the consequence of the of the process of individual's recognition in confronting with those commodities which are of same qualities in any other respect.

Philip Carter has categorized the customer regarding their trusting into four groups: Hardcore loyalists always prefer a specific brand to other brands in their purchase decisions. Split loyalists always prefer two or three brands in their purchase. Shifting loyalists mostly prefer a specific brand but may change to other brands at some specific periods of time. Switchers make a specific decision for any of their choices. These customers may change their decision easily based on the cost of the commodity, its verities or the advice of others. At least, there exist three reasons in business manager's minds to focus on the brand's loyalty. 1. Brand's loyalty may increase the customer's period of purchasing from that specific company. 2. Brand's loyalty can decrease the cost of company's advertising even those who are not totally loyal to the brand and are attached to is in terms of perspective can be good advertiser for the specific brand.

4.4  Customer's Satisfaction from the Services

Satisfaction is defined as the individual's pleasant or unpleasant feeling from a comparison between the function of his mind and his expectations. As it is clearly implied in this definition, satisfaction is a consequent of the individual's mind and expectation. If the function of the commodity appears less than the customer's expectation, the customer would become unpleasant and if the function of the commodity appears more than the customer's expectation, the customer will become pleasant and satisfactory with the commodity (Katler, 1980). In fact, satisfaction is customer's judgment from his last purchase and his connection with the supplier of the service or the commodity (Bitner and Hubber, 1994). Customer's satisfaction from the brand can be emotionally evaluated from the commodity and services of a specific brand at any specific time (Anderson et a.l, 2004). Generally, customer's satisfaction can be labeled as a judgmental, recognizable, emotional process which leads the customer to a positive perspective toward the brand. From most critics' viewpoints, satisfaction is emotional response to a specific purchase (Narus and Anderson, 1990).

4.5  Customers' Loyal and Emotional Factors       

One of the important factors which encourage the customer to communicate with a specific production and purchase it is emotion. We are living in an emotional world which determines our every day's choice (Berry, 2002). In this regard, the businessmen try to make an emotional connection between the customers and one specific brand. The advantage of improving the relation between the customer and the brand has been predicated in the academic literature of the company (Thomson et al., 2005; Berry, 2000). This perspective is the core of the theory (Bowlby, 1979) which expresses that "the emotional level attracted to a specific subject or object determines the nature of attention to that object" (Thomson et al., 2005) though this theory is affected by the human personalities. The research has shown that the customers would probably attribute certain features and aspects to a specific commodity and communicate with as if communicating with a human being (Aaker, 1997; Fournier, 1998). As a result, this could be concluded that the emotional relation between the customer and the brand would determine their loyalty to that brand (Thomson et al., 2005). According to Berry (2000), one recognized brand will always make an emotional relation with the hearers. The emotional effects are the result of a long relation between the customers and the provided services (Philips and Baumgartner, 2002). And this is the result of marketing. The customer's feeling would be counted as an important factor in customer's judgment, satisfaction and their behavior toward decision making (Pham, et al., 2001). The unrelenting effort of banking services would lead to the formulation of emotional relation with the customers and the consequent customer's loyalty toward the commodity. Thus

H1: The correlation between the customer's emotional factors and their loyalty is always positive.

4.6  Customer's Satisfaction and the Quality of the Services

Customer's satisfaction is the indication of the evaluation of the production and the services and the value of using the services. Satisfaction is the result of customer's feeling and the evaluation of the quality of the services. Contrary to the close relation between the satisfaction and the quality of the services; some other factors should also be counted (Cheng and Yang, 2013). Therefore, by promoting the quality of the complimentary services, it seems that it can be fulfilled by a comparison between the previous services and the customer's expectation (Parasuraman et al., 1998). The quality level of services is the final evaluation of customer's judgment from the services (Net al, 1985). The quality of the service defines the general demand of the customer for the majority of various services and these factors are not specified to the banking services and can be seen as a fundamental necessity in most of the services (An and Noh, 2009, to et al 2013). The research has shown that the customer's satisfaction is followed by their emotions toward that brand (sandvik, 1997; Martin et al, 2008, Oliver and Westbork, 1993 Liljander). Satisfaction is regarding the customer's feeling toward a specific commodity or a service. Recent research has indicated that customer's satisfaction is considered as a reaction in customer's behavior (Mano and Oliver, 1993). When the quality of the services is higher from the customer's emotional level, a positive feeling is created by the customers (Oliver et al 1997, Oliver and Westbrok, 1993). Satisfaction is knowledge and is considered as pivotal factor for customer's loyalty. The continuation of a bank is determined by the level of customer's satisfaction (Bhattacherjee, 2001; Srnivasan et al, 2002). In the previous research, the researchers have reached this conclusion that between the banks' satisfaction and loyalty is a positive relation (Homborg and Giering, 2001) and also the quality of service has been considered as an intensifier factor in customer's loyalty. Zeithaml et al (1996) have reached this conclusion that the relation between the quality of the service and customer's loyalty is fulfilled through customer's satisfaction. Caruana (2002) has indicated that satisfaction should be considered as mediated variable in affecting the quality of customer's services. Kauran et al (2015) based on the previous studies have reached the following speculations:

H2: Customer's satisfactions from the banks, results in a positive unitary on customer's loyalty.

H3: Emotional attraction to banks has a positive unitary with banks' customer's loyalty.

H4: The quality of provided services from the banks has a positive unitary with customer's loyalty.

H5: The quality of provided services from the banks has a positive unitary with being emotionally attracted banks.

H6: The quality of provided services from the banks has a positive unitary with customer's satisfaction from the banks.

4.7  Its Importance and Significance in Services Section

Trusting on a specific brand includes a level of capability to fulfill the promises (Doney & Cannon, 1997). Trusting in a brand from customer's perspective is psychological variable which leads to a collection of speculations or guesses in relation with customer's praising, perfection and munificence (Gravies & korchia, 2002). The results of previous research have shown that whatsoever the value of a brand is higher, it may gain more credibility from the customers. The important marketing factor is used for maintaining services between the customers and business (Caster et al, 2014). Loyalty is prominent factor in the success of organizational services like banks as the services unlike the previously purchased productions are not palpable and the customers always consider buying such transactions as risk taking (Joo bet al, 2010). Creation of loyalty with the customer is of higher importance in such organizations (Punjaisri et a.l, 2013). Trusting is an important factor in evaluating the customer's behavior (Butter and Goritz, 2008) and an important factor in the theoretical marketing (Flavian and Guinalu, 2006; Morgan and Johnson, 1999). Trust in the industry of services indicates their expectation and belief from the provided services and the sole principle of unification of the organization (Morgan and Hunt, 1994). Customer's loyalty depends on their previous experience and evaluation from the functions of organization's production. Loyalty is affected by customer's satisfaction (Morgan et al., 1993). Those customers trusting their bank use its services more often with satisfaction (Morgan et al., 1993; Sinrdeshmukh, 2000) and have better feelings toward their bank which ends are loyalty. Based on the previously discussion, the following speculations are liable:

H7: The quality of received services from the banks has positive unitary with customer's loyalty with the banks.

H8: Customer's loyalty shows the positive unitary with the customers.

H9: Customer's loyalty shows the positive unitary with customer's emotions with the banks.

H10: Customer's loyalty shows the positive unitary with customer's satisfaction with the banks.

Model 1 shows the considered relation of this study. The involvement factor is added to this model as an external factor because the involvement factor is originated from the level of emotional customer.

V.   THE CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF RESEARCH

Based on the literary background, the conceptual model is like this:

Model 1:   The conceptual researching model

5.1  The Method of Research

The present study based on function and the collection of data is descriptive and non- experimental. The statics of this research includes customers of public banks and the important criteria for being included in this being a customer and having connection with the banks. About unlimited statistics and the level of 0/.5 deviation, samples are taken from 387. The sampling is also accidental. The method of gathering research was through a questionnaire  of twenty-five items. Determining the narrative of questioner is done through the narrative of content and structure. The narrative of content is done with the help of University professor's comments. The narrative of structure is also an analytical factor. Determining the threshold of measurement, the Cronbach's alpha coefficients are used. The following charts show the final results of the structural narrative of questioner. The achieved loading factor from all the items is more than 0/5. Moreover, the achieved Alpha coefficient for all the research's criteria is more than 0/7. With regard to these subjects, this could be claimed that the scale of research has an appropriate narrative.

5.2  The Analysis of Data  

The first chart shows the statistical sample from the perspective of demographical variables:

Chart 1:   The descriptive statistics regarding demographical variables

(Earnings Millio )

Education

Job

Age

Sex

Marital Status

1          3

Under

Diploma

8/89%

Employed

24/8%

Under 25

5/2%

man

52/2%

Married

36/7%

Between 1 - 2

62/2

Below Bachelor

8/6%

Self-employed

31/9%

25-30

37%

woman

47/8%

Single

36/3%

Between 2 - 3

21/2

Bachelor

28/9%

Students

34/1%

31-35

40%

Above 3

13/3

Master

40/9%

unemployed

9

36-50

15/6%

PhD

12/6%

Above 50

2/2%

For testing the normality of the data, Kolmogorov-Smirnov has been used. The results of the test have shown that all the variables consist of the normal distributions. The results of the test are shown below:

Chart 2:  The results of normal test without data

The level of meaning

Z statistics

Variables

0/098

1/113

Being emotionally attracted to banks

0/138

0/198

Satisfactions from the bank

0/287

0/857

The level of trusting in bank

0/082

1/213

The quality of service

0/118

./978

Bank trusting

0/102

1/018

The level bank involvement

The structural equation and Partial Least Squares (PLS) has been used for testing the research speculations. An external model has been used to elaborate the relation between the hidden variables and determine to what extent the hidden variance of a variable can be determined by other hidden variables. Regular indicator has been used for evaluating the model in the test which includes R2, critical path coefficients and critical coefficients, In this study, six different variables have been considered. Customer's loyalty has been taken from Ganesh (2000), being emotionally attracted from Thomson et al (2005), customer's satisfaction from Oliver and Svan (1919), the quality of service again from Oliver and Svan (1919), and the level of trusting from Doney and Cannon (1997). All the questioner's questions have been created via five-item Likert scale.

Chart 3 shows the indicators structural model based on extracted Standard mean-variance (AVE) and also shows other criteria. If the quantity of AVE for all structures is above 0/5, elements of more that %50 of the related variance structures are determined and the presence of convergent validity was used in tests (Fornel and Laker, 1981).

Chart 3: Confirmatory factor analysis scale research

Factorial loading of items

AVE

Composite Reliability

R Square

Cronbach's Alpha

Loyalty to bank

0/7802

0/9114

0/5871

0/8593

Item 1

0/883

Item 2

0/904

Item 3

0/836

Being emotionally attached to bank

0/5117

0/8655

0/6221

0/8135

Item 4

0/760

Item 5

0723

Item 6

0/649

Item 7

0724

Item 8

0/723

Item 9

0/684

Satisfaction from bank services

0/6324

0/8721

0/5900

0/8034

Item 10

0/866

Item 11

0/841

Item 12

0/791

Item 13

0/670

Quality of bank service

0/7126

0/9084

0/5591

0/8666

Item 14

0/851

Item 15

0/841

Item 16

0/852

Item 17

0/825

The level of bank loyalty

0/7721

0/9313

0/5175

0/9015

Item 18

0/899

Item 19

0/882

Item 20

0/851

Item 21

0/882

The level of involvement

0/7686

0/9300

0/000

0/8995

Item 22

0/863

Item 23

0/855

Item 24

0/903

Item 25

0/886

Before conducting the testing of the research speculation, the relation between the variable is measured by Pearson correlation coefficient.

Chart 4 shows the results. By comparing the squared correlation between both of the variable by AVE measurement; it should be more than the AVE measurement which is used for determining the confirmation of the value of the variable structures.

Chart 4:   The correlation between the variables

Loyalty

Being emotionally attracted

Satisfaction

Quality of the service

Trust

Involvement

Loyalty

1

Being emotionally attracted

**0/694

1

Satisfaction

**0/760

**0/723

1

Quality of the service

**0/756

**0/708

**0/695

1

Trust

**0/844

**0/722

**0/739

**0/709

1

Involvement

**0/833

**0/732

**0/803

**0/724

**0/895

1

** Being meaningful in the level of meaning 0/01

The external research model which is indicator of the relation between the main variables is calculated by the Smart PLS software which can normally be observed.

Structural model of the test research hypotheses (Normal way)

Structural model of the test research hypotheses (Meaningful way)

Chart 5 shows the direct and indirect dependable variables with regard to the studied speculations. As it is observed, there exists a direct relation between being emotionally attached and customer's loyalty but there exist no direct relation between being emotionally attached and customer's loyalty. Therefore, this hypothesis is rejected. Hypothesis 2 (general β= 0485), Hypothesis 3 (general β=0337), Hypothesis 4 (general β=0576), Hypothesis 5 (general β= 0712), Hypothesis 6 (general β=0488), Hypothesis 7 (general β=0718), Hypothesis 8 (general β= 0667), Hypothesis 9 (general β=0247), Hypothesis 10 (general β=0377) are also confirmed. Therefore, there exists a meaningful relation between these variables and these speculations are confirmed.

Chart 5

General sum

Indirect effect

Direct effect

Result of hypothesis

Hypothesis

0/104

0/104

Non-existent

Rejected

H1: Customer's emotionally attracted based on banks loyalty

0/485

-

0/485

Confirmed

H2: Customer's satisfaction based on banks' loyalty

0/337

-

0/337

Confirmed

H3: Being emotionally attracted based on customer's satisfaction

0/576

0/134

0/442

Confirmed

H4: The quality of service based on customer's loyalty to bank

0/712

0/394

0/318

Confirmed

H5: Quality of service based on customer's emotional attraction

0/488

0/271

0/217

Confirmed

H6: Quality of research on customer's satisfaction

0/718

-

0/718

Confirmed

H7: Quality of research on customer's loyalty

0/667

0/116

0/551

Confirmed

H8: Trust in bank's loyalty

0/247

-

0/247

Confirmed

H9: Trust on customer's emotionally attraction

0/337

0/083

0/294

Confirmed

H10: Trust on customer's loyalty

V.   CONCLUSION

The achieved result of from Hayden research has shown that 52/2 percent of the people consisted of women and 47/8 consisted of men; 63/3 of the people were single, and 36/7 was married; majority of people are ranged between 31 to 35 years which is consisted of 40 percent; the lowest frequency people in terms of the age is regarding people under 25 years old. In terms of education, the majority of educated people are regarding those having a master's degree which consisted of 40/9 percent of the whole; the lowest in terms of education is regarding those having an under- diploma degree which consists of 8/89; the highest frequency in terms of job is regarding students with a frequency of 34/1 percent; the lowest frequency in terms of occupation is regarding unemployment with a frequency of 9 percent; the highest frequency in terms of income is regarding those having an occupation with a salary between one to two million tomans which include 62/2 percent of the whole sample and the lowest in terms of income is regarding those with an income of less than one million in a month.

In these researches, we introduce an analytical model to investigate customer's being emotionally attracted to special brand and also its effect on customer's loyalty. Therefore, we reached this conclusion that emotional attraction has a direct effect on customer's loyalty. As a result this hypothesis is rejected that those customers having an emotional attraction to bank are not loyal to it. However, in the previous research, it is expressed that those customers who are more emotionally attracted to a bank, are also having more satisfaction with the bank's services and are prolonging their relation with the bank. In this regard, this satisfaction is conveyed among the customers via mouth to mouth (Bloemer and Ruyter, 1999). Moreover, it shows that bank's loyalty is directly affected by the satisfaction (Bhattacherjee, 2001 Floh and Treblmaier; 2006).

As it is shown, customers with a more satisfaction are more committed and loyal to the bank. This relation is accompanied by customer's positive feeling and emotional attraction. Moreover, in the previous research, we achieved this conclusion that emotionally attracted and satisfactory to bank results in high quality of bank services and loyalty.

5.1  Scientific Application of the Data                             

This research includes many scientific and theoretical applications. First, its result provides a good comprehension of affective factors on customer's loyalty. It helps customers in decision making. Altogether, few studies have been conducted on customer's loyalty to the banks. This research provides a valuable perspective for the political markets. In the section of the bank services, the bank is introduced as a company which has a primary and secondary brand.  Therefore, providing good quality services to customers has a high value in bank's orientation of customer (Berry, 2000). Like brand, providing bank services needs bank's effort in making connection with the banks emotionally. An appropriate relation is possible through human relation not an advertising method. Such relations are based on the previous level of customer's experience (Zeithaml et al, 1993) which is accompanied by the amiable and loyal feeling. Moreover, respecting customer is based on personality and emotion and a positive feeling can lead to satisfaction and emotional attraction and the consequent perpetual relation with the customer. Customer's powerful relation with bank would avoid short discontent and would lead to a perpetual relation with the bank. The result of this research provides the customer with general view which can help them to form a long relation with the banks and also increase their ability in decision making. Banks should also try to improve their services to maintain their customers and on the other side it is expected from loyal customer to form a unitary relation with their bank.

5.2  The limitation of the Study 

Though this research provides us with a proper perspective of emotional attraction in creating customers' loyalty in the section of banks services, one of the limitations of this research is the generalization of this view to bank's other sections. First, this study has investigated some specific variables in relation with customer's relation with the bank, however; this relation is more complicated which never permits achieving a determined result. Therefore, in the present research, it is suggested that some other factors like income and the value of bank services and also the measurement of customer's satisfaction added to the previous factors (Burnhal et al, 2003; Yang and Peterson, 2004). Another limitation of this study which cannot be overgeneralized to other studies is the sample selected for the study which shows the customers in relation to the banks. In this regard, for increasing the generalization of these results, this study should include more accidental statistics.

5.3  The Suggestion of the Study 

Though it has been made clear that one of the important factors in creating loyalty to a specific brand is its services, bank's managers should try to improve the quality of the services to achieve the customer's satisfaction. As a result, trying to improve the quality of the services should be part of long-term organization's plan. Because in this way, the customer's loyalty to a specific bank can be increased and consequently receive more profit. With respect, to the direct relation between the quality of the service and the creation of loyalty to a brand, customer will increase their loyalty to the brand with regard to the received services and advertise for the brand through mouth to mouth advertising. Therefore, in this respect, banks try to use up-to-date services, appropriate employee's behavior, doing the promised services on time, integrity and proper notification, properly answering customer, request to promote the organization to it desired purposes. And moreover, it achieves customer's satisfaction which leads to attracting and maintaining more customers. Gaining customer's loyalty can be done by comprehensively pursuing customer's complaints. In fact, complaints should be considered as an opportunity to improve the relation with the customer and also as a tool to consider customer's changing interest and fulfill them. Changing the setting of the bank into a beautiful place should also be taken into consideration with respect to the intense competition among the banks trying to achieve more customers. In general, improving customer's mentality toward a specific brand is of highest importance; even improving the general people's mentality should also be taken into serious consideration because it can improve people's general view of a specific bank. Reminding customers of the brand through presenting appropriate advertising with the same message can be really useful. Surely, by solely paying attention to the different methods of advertising, the bank cannot improve its relation with the customer. Therefore, by referring to the researching model, this study has taken into consideration the relation between this variable and other variables have been studied. As such, this study can copiously help the organizations in creating a powerful bond between the customer and the brand. Brand's communication can be used as a useful tool in formulation of satisfactory and loyal relation with the brand.

REFERENCES  

  1. Sadeghi, Ali, (2011). Analysis of the Role of Brand and its Effect on Consumer's Behaviour of Mihan's Production with regard to Aker Model, Nishapour: Azad University.
  2. …, (2011). "Analysis of the Effect of Brand on Customer's Loyalty", Journal of Business Management Perspectives, No 3, 57-73.
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