African oral traditions have contributed enormously in the development of African literary discourse in both manner (form) and matter (substance). This study set out to investigate the role played by Nso oral songs chanted by women as an instrument in the interpretation of historical and contemporary society that is mostly characterized by technological innovation, globalization and modernism with their attendant scientific discoveries. The thrust of the argument of this study is built around the premise that the Nso language and culture transported from one generation to the other are rich in oral literature. This rich culture that exists mostly in the oral form is endangered and threatened partly by the fact that many believe that only written forms are worth the attention of literary scholars.

Bribery and corruption is a negation of the true principles of gift. It is a conscious inducement for an after favour, and thus, violates the principles of public life. Gift in whatever form is not bad in itself, but becomes bad or a bribe when the intents and circumstances is already pre-staged. In Nigeria, bribery and corruption is condemned as evil but they condones ‘goodwill payment’ ‘greasing payment’ and ‘solvent donations’ from or to persons in positions of authority for facilitation of files, jobs, contracts and appointment etc, thus, practicing bribery and corruption in disguise. This paper adopted the philosophical method using ethical theories with special reference to Aristotle’s virtue ethics theory. The paper focuses on a critical juxtaposition of gift and bribery, forms and cost of corruption on nation building as well as the way forward on how to curb this virus that has eaten deep into the fabric of the Nigeria’s society. The paper observed that the consequences of unethical practices and corruption does not only destroy personal virtue and social values, but as well retard development, weaken social institutions, pervert justice, and thus responsible for the current economic recession and unpurposeful leadership as the country continue to journey without the will. The paper therefore advocated for the moderation of passion through the enactment/enforcement of coercive laws, and as well calls of the government to intensify efforts in carrying out corrupt-free value re-orientation and moral regulation in Nigeria.

This paper analyses two texts, one English and a play, and the other Cameroonian and a novel, similar in the theme they treat; the conflict between patriarchy or the Old School and anti-patriarchy or the New School. The Old School argues or thinks that the father is the one to choose a husband for his daughter whereas the New School argues that it is the daughter who must choose her husband. From the classical period through the Middle Ages to the Renaissance period, the Old School prevailed. This is seen in Shakespeare’s plays where the roles of women actors were played by men as women had no voice in the society and were not considered as men’s equals. They were seen as inferior to men. The Cameroonian society of the 1960s which Margaret Afuh presents in her novel was also the one in which the Old School reigned. This paper argues that although these works were written when the Old School prevailed, we see authors who present heroines who fight to overthrow this Old School by promoting the New School and as such revealing their authors as anti-patriarchal or feminist. The paper reveals that in Romeo and Juliet and Born Before Her Time we see girls who reject the choices of husbands by their fathers and choose their own husbands even at the risk of death or being dispossessed as heiress.

Tuesday, 23 May 2017 07:24

The Geometric Progression

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Society, as a matter of fact has emerged as a structure out of the non linear dynamics of the inherent self generative network of nature. So structurally it is never rigid, neither absolute nor deterministic and all the natural beings on this planet act as a contributor to it. Progress or development therefore can neither be defined through any technological parameter nor can be mechanically imposed in a particular space time continuum. Rather it’s the spontaneity inherent in the weave of nature’s own network from which matter and life emerges probabilistically with a structural pertinence. This is somewhat like the development of a seed to fruit. But the modern times display a quite poignant picture where the technology of nuclear weapons expel nonviolent fraternal network of societal harmony and the mechanics of the political system is literally subjugating the meaning of humanity. This article has tried a nominal effort to curb the imminent degeneration of the entirety.

Secondhand smoke (SHS) contributes to air pollutant in public and cause health problem to children and adolescents. Many people hold less knowledge and assumed that, SHS is harmless to health. This study is about knowledge, attitude and behavior in avoiding SHS exposure among non-smoking women.  The aim of the study is to determine the extent of people’s avoidance behavior towards SHS exposure in Klang Valley, Malaysia. This cross-sectional study involves 200 respondents who have been conveniently selected around public places in Klang Valley. The descriptive findings suggested that, 173 respondents agreed tobacco smoke is dangerous for non-smoker’s health. Surprisingly, the respondents did not have accepted level of knowledge and attitude to avoid SHS with mean = 3.99, 4.10 accordingly. Besides, multiple regression test statistically proved that, among the variables, knowledge added statistically significant to the prediction of avoiding SHS with p = 0.00. This study may be a corner stone and an initial effort for responsible authorities such as Ministry of Health to begin formulating plan to increase the awareness of non-smokers about the rationales of preventing SHS, as an alternative plan for creating awareness among smokers.

Election is an integral part of democracy.Elections are held to justify and acknowledge the will of the people as to who should represent, govern, and occupy an elective position. Credible election does not only legitimize the powers of the elected office holders but also make the sovereign power of the citizens known. However, election in Nigeria is trapped in transitiondue to electoral malpractices and lack of genuine voters register. Thus, election marked by irregularities and malpractices impedes democratic growth.This paper argues that genuine voter’sregister and credible election is sine qua non for strengthening democracy in Nigeria

Discipline problem is a phenomenon that causes fear and consternation for most teachers. It takes many forms including, disruptive talking, inaudible responses, sleeping in class, tardiness and poor attendance, failure to do homework, cheating in tests and exams and willingness to speak in the target language. There are many reasons for discipline problem, it can stem from students’ reactions to their teacher’s behaviour or from other factors inside or outside the classroom. Whatever the form discipline problem takes, we need to know why does it occur? What can teachers expect and how can they effectively handle discipline problem?
This article aims at dealing with the most important reasons of this phenomenon, which make students conduct badly and clumsy. Then we suggest some strategies to lessen and remedy this problem, which prevails among students. How can the teacher handle such problem and create interest and enthusiasm in his or her lectures?
The data was collected through an interview with English teachers at Tahri Mohammed University (Bechar) and a questionnaire distributed to English teachers at this university. Based on the results of the interview and the questionnaires, information about the causes and solutions of discipline problem in the classroom were collected.

A very simple understanding of the word ‘Corporate Social Responsibility’ (CSR) is that it is a relationship between business organization and the society with which they interact. Under CSR, business organizations voluntarily embark on various development activities for the welfare of the society. However, there are several other benefits attached to CSR activities which give business organizations additional impetus to get involved in such activities. These are the advantages like creation of goodwill, branding, risk minimization, consumer and employee satisfaction, etc. Currently business organizations are involved in CSR activities like, fostering the growth of education, health care, environment protection, rural development, women empowerment, labor welfare, anti-corruption, etc.
This paper tries to explore, through secondary data analysis, about the evolution of Corporate Social Responsibility as an idea and then as a concept which is now mandatory by law for a particular category of organizations. The fundamental aim of this paper is to understand the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility activities on organizations and society. The literature which has been reviewed gives an insight about the religious and historical context about CSR as well as its impact on organizations and various sections of society. This paper is based on secondary data study with relevant literature has been taken into consideration to achieve the objective.

The relationship between religious conversion and psychosis is one of the fundamental issues at the meeting point of theology and clinical psychology. In the present study, we present the main lines of research on this relationship emphasizing the similarities and differences between emotionally turbulent religious conversion and psychosis. Some basic experiences in perception, thinking, and feeling share the same roots in these conditions. Perplexity (e.g., ambivalence, inability to discriminate between own feelings, and hyperreflectivity) and self-disorder (e.g., depersonalization, impression of a change in one's mirror image, and experience of discontinuity in own action) may be similar in psychosis and religious conversion, whereas other features (e.g., negative symptoms, social withdrawal, disorganized thinking, and persistent delusions) may be different. Regarding the content of religious thought, conversion is characterized by unique themes in contrast to psychosis. The main doctrinal focus of conversion is laid on the destruction and death of the old self, new life and resurrection by baptism into the death of Jesus Christ, and the transformative work and gifts of the Holy Spirit. In summary, perplexity, self-disorder, and emotional turmoil are common features of turbulent religious conversion and psychosis, but a broader emergence of anomalous subjective experiences and cognitive deficits are detectable only in psychosis.

Background and Objectives: eLearning systems are used by other than IT professionals and their perception determines the development and use processes (success/failure), this relationship is mediated by the issues of digital literacy, mindset or beliefs.\rMethods and Tools for Analysis: This paper develops a theoretical model for eLearning development and use in higher education in developing states. Literature survey was done. A computer based software ATLAS.ti was used for qualitative analyses.\rFindings: The context of an institution where new eLearning systems are introduced includes many things but most critical are the users. Their mindset and digital literacy is reported over and over as the critical success and failure factors for eLearning development and use practices.\rApplication/Improvements: Most of the HEIs are adopting latest gadgets which results into more problems than services, as leading-edge technologies turn into bleeding-edge technologies.

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