Spermatozoa Quality of Ballenger Roosters
Ramadhan Sumarminα & Nadyatul Khaira Hudaσ
The Ballenger rooster is a long Crower fowl. This rooster always caged by single caging to have good long crowing sound and it isolated to others. This study was carried out to identify the spermatozoa quality of Ballenger rooster. The sperm was collected from isolated caging of Ballenger rooster more or less than three years and un-isolated Ballenger rooster as the control, before and after three months treated by 124 ComFed. The spermatozoa collected by massage methods and analyze with counting chamber of Improve Neubauer. Slides of sperm were stained by eosin to count normal and abnormal spermatozoa. Parameter observed were spermatozoa number, colors, and sperm consistency. The results show that the sperm quality of Ballenger rooster increased (from 2.6 billion sperm/ml to 3.8 billion sperm/ml) significantly higher (p <0.05) in isolated caging with rescheduling feeding. The color and consistency of spermatozoa were increased from + (c quality) to ++ (b quality). It can conclude that single caging could decrease the Ballenger rooster spermatozoa quality. The reschedule feeding rooster with supplement 124 ConFed could increased the spermatozoa quality.
Keywords: 124 confed, ballenger rooster, isolated, sperm quality.
Author α: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Negeri Padang. Jl. Prof. Dr. Hamka, Air Tawar Barat, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia.
Author σ: Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Andalas University. Jl. Prof. Dr. M. Hatta, Limau Manis, Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia.
Indonesia is one country that has the greatest biodiversity after Brazil's state including Avifauna. However, biodiversity is threatened by illegal logging in the Indonesian rainforest, causing damage to habitats where live many kinds of animals. Animal habitat destruction was compounded by the cultivation and burning of forests for farming activities. This forest habitat destruction further would threaten the existence of endangered species (endangered species) found in the jungles of Indonesia.
Birds that are scientifically known today are of animals included in Class Aves that have characteristics of primary feathers (feather generally plumage and phyllo-plumage), part (beak), scales on the legs and uropygeales glands (Oily Glands) (Nalbandov, 1975). Based on the early development after hatching the Aves is divided into two categories, which are precocial that can feed itself and that is altricial, i.e. feed puppies rely on the parent and eating in a way gavaging (Gilbert, 1994). Based on the habitat they inhabit Aves divided into terrestrial poultry or water fowl birds (fresh water and marine) (Mc Fadden and Keeton, 1995).
Based on the type of sound, there are two types in the avian are call (sound calls) and song (sound singing). Sound type of Call is used to communicate between the same sex, as a gesture of their enemies or predators, surprise moment, and to find the food. Sound type Song is the type of sound as a statement of the territory (territorial declare) and as an attraction to lure females who would mate. Sound type Call found in males and females while the song is only in males (Rusfidra 2007).
Ballenger chicken is an exotic chicken species typical of West Sumatra, Solok district. The beauty of the long sound crowing and storied is the hallmark of this kind cock crowing sound. The chicken population is very low while the development potential is quite open. Various technologies and means have been tried so far to increase the population. Including to describe the semen quality of Roosters (Shanmugam et al. 2012)
This research aimed to observe spermatozoa quality of Ballenger rosster. Ballenger rooster derived from Solok before and after improvement of feed. Alleged to have decreased sperm quality due to the isolation cock crowing Ballenger rooster maintenance study with this melodious voice on a single type of decorative cage. In general, pet owners also objected if the chicken is left free along with other chickens for fear of lowering the quality of their voice.
3.1 Materials Research
Ballenger roosters used in this study are ten chicken, between 4-5 years old, with three or more crowing level. After the initial sperm collection done, then the whole Ballenger rooster given feed pattern with ComFed improvement and in line with spermatozoa quality inspection once a month for three months.
3.2 Research Procedure
In the initial stages of research conducted on the rooster's habituation could ejaculate without copulation. Ejaculation of the cock stimulated by massage on the Ischia-pubic area. The contraction in the muscles that cause the feathers stand posterior ornament is a signal of impending ejaculation (Obidi et al, 2008). Once the chicken is trained to ejaculate the sperm preparation the massage stimulation could done.
Chicken sperm ejaculated by massage stimulation results were place in glass containers to accommodate spermatozoa rooster. At any time the shelter sperm recorded number ml, consistency (viscosity), and color. After the calculation of the number of spermatozoa/ejaculate using an Improve Neubauer counting chamber, the spermatozoa stained with eosin to count the abnormality sperm (Kiernan, 1990; Junquera and Corneiro, 1991; Winarto, 2003).
The observed data such as parametric data, the number of spermatozoa per ml at the beginning and end of observation compared and analysis by Student's t-test, whereas nonparametric data in the form of a score of viscosity or consistency and color of the sperm are described and compared with the control (Steel and Torrie, 1993).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
At the start of the study is the determination of the male reproductive profile by measuring the quality of spermatozoa quality. Spermatozoa quality described to determine their reproductive ability. The observation of the parameters of the spermatozoa found that the number of spermatozoa of Ballenger roosters in the early (AKBw) is lower than the number of spermatozoa rooster after being treated ComFed (AKBp). Likewise with other criteria such as the number of the consistency and color of the sperm (Table 1) showed an increase in spermatozoa quality in Ballenger rooster after the improvement of feed.
Table 1: Comparison of Ballenger rooster spermatozoa quality, before (AKBw) and after the improvement of feed (Supplement)
Number of spermatozoa billions/ml
Description: The numbers in the same column followed by different letters are significantly different p <0.05 in Student's t-test
Lower quality of sperm AKB insulated feed only rely on rice alone leads necessarily to improve feed. After feeding ComFed sperm quality became better though consistency and smelled just a notch higher than the AKB sperm quality before treatment. In general, the AKB isolated males housed separately obtained, isolated from the other chicken’s colony and placed on a single enclosure. Factors absence of a meeting between the male and female chicken cused result in the least amount of sperm ejaculated. The absence of stimuli or stimulus around the female presence causes this stud AKB more often crowing for the use of energy, so the longer the crowing sound which will be tunable (Piccione and Caola, 2002). Another possibility is that the longer the isolated will further lower male sperm quality chicken AKB and vice versa will have a better voice.
According to Penfold et al. 2000, Brillard, 2003, and Tarif et al. 2013) the tendency of the frequency of meetings between male and female chickens that higher spur rooster libido and stimulate spermatogenesis process more continuous activation. Moreover, if it followed by mating between males and females, then the process of spermatogenesis will run an intensive and constant. In contrast to the roosters were never married the spermatogenesis process will hampered.
The quality and quantity of some stud tail remained unchanged after six weeks of repair feed schedule (Table 1). Although the pattern of feed has repaired without bringing males and females then the result isolated sperm quality AKB still low. Mating will cause the sperm that has generated issued and produced new sperm. Without mated, sperm will still inhabit spermatheca and prevents the formation of sperm. Avian generally does not happen sperm masturbation compensation expense as well as in mammals (King et al. 2002).
IMR decreased sperm quality insulated allegedly also closely associated with the average weight of the testes AKB isolated lower than which are kept together with hens (Table 2). The process of spermatogenesis will stimulated by the activities of mating. Besides the ability to mate the rooster would be better if there are many females (Modupe et al. 2013). The rooster can serve 10-12 hens (Obidi et al. 2008). It also shows that the activity of spermatogenesis in the testes isolated IMR less than spermatogenesis in the testis AKB activities freely.
Table 2: The weight average testes of Ballenger isolated, prior to and after the improvement of feed.
Average weight of a pair of testes (grams)
After rescedul of feed
12.2 ± 0.35
12.5 ± 0.30
19.8 ±0.29 *
21.5 ±0.42 *
Description: The numbers in the columns each followed * significantly different at p <0.05
Improved feed pattern for six weeks was not able to increase the activity of spermatogenesis in IMR isolated. The mean testes weight before and after the improvement of feed did not show a significantly increase. Possible factors female presence around the cock (rooster) that can increase the activity of spermatogenesis because it can increase the desire to marry at a rooster.
Based on the results and discussion of this research can be concluded:
- Ballenger rooster spermatozoa quality after feed reschedule could be increased as long as treatment.
- Ballenger rooster spermatozoa quality improvement not followed by an increase in the average weight of the testes.
Need to do research on the effect of the presence of hens and feed to the recovery repair activity patterns of spermatogenesis in Ballenger rooster.
The authors thank the Rector and Head of the Research Institute of the State University of Padang on the financing of this research through DIPA funds Padang State University in National Strategy Research Grant at 2014.
- Brillard JP. 2003. Practical aspects of fertility in poultry. Worlds Poult. Sci.J.59: 441-446.
- Gilbert F. Scott. 1994. Developmental Biology.4th edition. Sinauer Association, Inc. Sunderland, Massachusetts. P. 803-805.
- Junqueira LC., and Corneiro J. 1991. Basic Histology. Issue 2. Translator Adji Dharma. EGC. Jakarta.
- Kiernan JA. 1990. Histological and Histochemical Methods. 2nd Edition. Pergamon Press. Oxford.
- King LM, Brillard JP, Garret WM, Bakst MR, and Donoghue AM. 2002. Segregation of spermatozoa within sperm storage tubules of fowl and turkey hens. Reprod.123: 79-86
- Mc Fadden CH, and Keeton WT. Biology, an exploration of life. WW Norton & Company. New York. London. Pp 678-686.
- Modupe O., Livinus A.C., and Ifeanyi N.B. 2013. Semen quality characteristics and effect of mating ratio on the reproductive performance of Hubbard Broiler Breeders. Journal of Agriculture Science. Vol. 5, No. 1; pp: 154-159.
- Nalbandov. 1975. Reproductive Physiology of Mamals and Birds.3rd Edition. WH Freeman & Company. San Fransisco.
- Obidi JA, Onyeanusi BI, Come JO, Rekwot PI, and Abdullahi SJ. 2008. Effect of timing of artificial insemination on fertility and hatchability of Shikabrown breeder hens. Poult. Sci.7 (12): 1224-1226.
- Penfold LM, Wildt DE, Herzog TL, Lynch W, L Ware, Derrickson SE, and Monfort SL. 2000. Seasonal pattern of LH, testosterone and semen quality in Northern Pintail duck. Reprod. Fertility and Dev. 12: 229-235.
- Piccione, G and Carla G. 2002. Biological Rhythm in Livestock. J. Vet. Sci. 3: 145-157.
- Rusfidra A. 2007. Studies on the cock crowing bioacoustics Ballenger "local chicken singer" from West Sumatra. https://rusfidra.multiply. com. Downloaded January 2008.
- Shanmugam, M., Rajkumar U., Reddy M.R., and Rama Rao, V. 2012. Effects of age on semen quality in the naked neck and dwarf chicken under tropical climatic conditions. Animal Production Science,
- Steel RGD and Torrie JH. 1993. Principles and Procedures of Statistics.Translator Soemantri. Gramedia. Jakarta.
- Tarif A.M.M., Bhuiyan M.M.U., Ferdaousy R.N., Juyune N.S., and Mollah M.B.R. 2013. Evaluation of semen quality among four chicken lines. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. Vol 6, Issue 5, pp 07-13
- Winarto A. 2003. Procedure detection of active ingredients with the standard method / conventional.in Utilization Tissue Culture Techniques and histochemistry. HR Improvement Project Cooperation Director General of Higher Education DEPDIKNAS with Section Anatomy FKH IPB. Bogor.