Student’s Attitude and Motivational Factor as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Student’s in History of Education in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta
Oyewale Gbemisola Maryα & Saliu, Kayode Ajisafeσ
Students’ attitude and motivational factor as predictors of Academic Achievements of Student’s in History in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta. The study adopted survey research design. Fifteen students were randomly selected from each of the existing schools in the Federal College of Education, Abeokuta. The total number of the respondents for the study was seventy five. Two research questions were raised and analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. The results revealed that: there is significant relationship between student’s attitude and Academic Achievements of students in History, there is significant relationship between student’s motivational factor and academic Achievement of Student’s in History. The study was concluded that since attitude is seen as important variable that determines our daily lives, motivation should be used as an instrument of getting right attitude. The study recommended that experts who are teachers of history should be resourceful and result oriented among others.
Author α: Department of Arts and Language, Faculty of Education Ekiti State University, Ado-ekiti.
σ: Department Of Educational Foundations & Management School Of Education Federal College Of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Understanding the world we live in, since history deals with a record of past achievement of society, it provides the inspiration for human existence. It is of utmost importance that society has to know itself and understand its relationship with the past as well as with other societies and cultures. This argument establishes a fundamental justification for history. It is a subject that aims at meeting the basic need of the people living in the society. In this sense, history could be seen as being functional for it meets the societal needs and aspirations. The need for every society to know its root as well as its relationship with other societies is in agreement with the saying of “Cicero” who once said “Not to know what took place before you were born is to remain forever a child”. Man therefore uses history to understand the present in the light of past event and developments. History therefore exposes learners to their cultural heritage and their shared inheritance.
The justification for inclusion of history in the Nigerian Secondary School Curriculum was born out of its usefulness to the learners on one hand and the society on the other hand. History more than any other subjects in the secondary school curriculum provides inspiration for human existence. When history was made compulsory especially at the lower level of secondary school, then the students had interest and positive attitude towards teaching and learning of history. Hence, this did not only enhance their academic performance in the traditional subject but also affected and manifested positively in their spoken English as well as their sense of thinking. This period, history tries to develop an understanding of the world in which we live. It attempts to widen pupils experience through the study of people at different times and places. Thirdly, history provides a means to understand the process of change and continuity in human affairs. Finally, history develops the ability to think critically and to make value judgment about human situation, (Osokoya, 2006).
History is also a subject that can be used to promote international understanding. In order to promote international understanding through historical education, the teacher should emphasizes or should emphasizes the essential oneness or unity of the human race, inspite of obvious differences and apparent conflicts among modern societies of the world. The teacher emphasized the growing realization of the interdependence of nations and peoples of the modern world. Another way in which historical education promotes international understanding is to relate the knowledge of historical development in one’s country to the knowledge of similar events in other countries. This will enable the adolescents to understand the differences and similarities in the political, social, and economic developments in various nations of the world.
The need of pupils to find a means of widening their experience through the study of people of different time and a different place. History provides access to vest pool of real human experience against which pupils can compare their own experience. History can be used in liberating man over conception of what men’s is and also the possibilities of what man might become. This entails pupils studying not only the past history of their own country but also that of other countries cultures. There is a profound need to appreciate that change is possible, that life is not pre-determined and also to appreciate what is involved to change human situation. Moreover, we are living in an era of human history which has undergone and undergoing deep and rapid changes and pupils need to locate these in a context that does justice to their complexity and not merely have rules thumbs or vague generalization with which to handle future changes.
History also develops ability to think critically and make value judgment about human situations. Apparently, a student’s total education is designed to achieve this end. However, what makes history different is the context in which this takes place. History entails the handling of varied and sometimes conflicting sources as evidence about past human actions; and this in turn entails the cognitive skills of comprehension, analysis and evaluation. Coupled with these aspect of comprehension and analysis, the exercise of judgment is a central part of historical thinking and also of course, of the everyday life of the adult. Training in history thus makes adolescents able to weigh evidence and to be less susceptible to propaganda. In view of the above significance of history of education to students and entire society, this study intends to x-ray student’s attitude and motivational factor as predictors for academic achievement of students in History of Education.
Attitudes have a very important position in our daily lives. From this aspect, attitudes help individuals to interpret their environment and guide their behaviour in the social life (Erwin, 2001). Having also an important influence on the decisions, attitudes have a strong effect on what one will do, what kind of profession one will perform, which school onewill go to, where one will live, and whether one will accept new ideas (Schafer and Tait, 1986). Attitudes are defined by words such as emotional content, important beliefs, reactions, prejudices, evaluations and state of readiness (Çelik, 2011). Factors such as physiological factors, personality, and process of socialization, group membership and group norm contribute to the formation of attitudes as well (İnceoğlu, 2000). Within the framework of these definitions; it is possible to state that the attitude generally includes a tendency, stance, reaction. Attitudes are influenced by personal opinions, life experiences, and they are shaped by means of education and acquire a different dimension (Hacieminoglu, 2015).
Studies have shown that the classrooms where the students are educated, students’ socio-economic levels, ethnicities and mother tongues are influential in the formation of their attitudes as well as the schools and teachers (Hoang, 2008; Kazazoğlu, 2013; Logan, Johnston, 2009; Stagner, 2014; Wilkinson, PialDas, 2011). It is known that schools and school-related variables are intertwined with attitudes. It should be noted that the learning attitudes of the students who develop a positive attitude toward the school will develop as well. In particular, the attitudes towards lessons and reading are of special importance in this regard. According to Bastuğ and Keskin (2013), acquiring and investigating the reading attitudes, identifying, improving and examining the problems related to the reading process are important in terms of gaining reading interest and habit. Attitude has a close relationship with motivation. They are interconnected with each other. There are many definitions of the term. Ellof & Ebersohn (2004) Attitude is belief and opinion that can influence individuals to behave in certain ways. Brown (2001) states that attitude is indicated by the large proportion of emotional involvement such as feeling, self, a relationship in community (p. 61). Garner (1985) explains that attitude is the evaluative reaction to the certain object which is inferred based on the individual’s belief or opinion about it. Attitude is acquired through experience and has a direct influence on behavior. Attitude has been the subject of many research studies from several viewpoints, such as how it forms, how it changes, and how it affects the individual and society (Tekkursun, Demir, Ilhan and Arslan, 2017). According to Franzoi (2003), attitude is “a positive or negative evaluation of an object”. Cuceloglu (2005), however, defines attitude as “the state of an individual’s belief and emotions formed towards people, subjects or events”. According to Hogg and Vaughan (2006), attitude is a structure that directs our behaviours, although it is not directly observable. Attitudes may show a number of changes during the course of our lives. While an individual’s immediate surroundings are effective in forming his or her attitudes, especially in the first years of life, these attitudes may undergo a series of changes according to the individual’s level of knowledge, socialisation processes and life experiences (Inceoglu, 2010).
Motivation is an internal derive to satisfy an unsatisfied need (Kreither, 2009). He further stated that it is a psychological process that gives behaviour purpose. Motivation is also seen as the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational goals. Jones in Saliu (2012) motivation is concerned with how behaviour gets started, is energized, is sustained, is directed, is stopped and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organization. Kelly (1974) in Saliu 2012 states that motivation has to do with the forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and destiny of behaviour. Peretomode (1991) is of the view that motivation is the degree of readiness of an organism to pursue some designated goal. Motivation is also defined as a pre-disposition to act in a specific goal directed manner.
Saliu (2012) motivational factors are directly related to work itself. Herzberg found that motivational factors which relate to job itself can have positive effect on job satisfaction and result to increase in output. He added further that the factors include meaningful and challenging work, recognition for accomplishment, opportunities for accomplishment, opportunities for growth and advancement, feeling of achievement, promotion and job itself. Saliu, (2012) Herzberg’s dual factors theory considered financial rewards as a hygiene factor’s and therefore not a motivator. The findings of research Ejiogu (1983) in Saliu (2012) found that cash bonuses served as the best incentives towards productivity, especially when such business are made contigent upon performance. Ejiogu and Herics (1980) also established that monetary rewards was consistently cited as major need of Nigerian workers including even well educated and highly placed professionals. Motivational factor also served as ‘drive to action/ in a classroom situation. It is generally acknowledged that if a child is highly motivated and encouraged by his parents and teachers, it helps greatly in the level of educational attainment and in deriving self-fulfillment. Orenuga (2009) classified motivation into two, positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. She further illustrated that when an individual repeat responses for which he is reinforced is a positive reinforcement why the one that discontinue responses which he is not reinforced is a negative reinforcement. It is on this note, this research work intends to investigate attitude and motivational factors as predictors of academic achievement of students in History of Education in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Positive attitude and monetary rewards are consistently regarded as major need of Nigerian workers. Although, earlier researchers such as Saliu (2012) and Ejioku (1983) have written work on motivation and productivity of teachers. But little research activities devoted towards attitudes and motivation as determinants of academic achievement. In view of this, the current study intends to investigate attitude and motivational factor as predictors of academic achievement of students in History of Education in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
To investigate if the student’s attitude is a predictor of academic achievement of history of education.
To investigate if student’s motivational factors is a predictor of academic achievement of History of Education.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Is Student’s Attitude a predictor of Academic Achievement of History of Education?
Is Student’s Motivational factors a Predictor of Academic Achievement of History of Education?
V. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study focused on Student’s Attitude and Motivational Factor as a Predictors of Academic Achievement of History of Education. It also conceptualized the variables such as attitudes, an motivational factors. The study was restricted to Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
The study employed a descriptive survey type. The population for the study comprised of students. Fifteen students were randomly selected from each of the existing schools in Federal College of Education, Abeokuta (that is, 15 students from School of Arts and Social Sciences, Education, Languages, Sciences and Vocational Education).
The total number of the respondents for the study was seventy five. The instrument used for the study was research designed questionnaire. The instrument was validated by two lecturers, from department of Measurement and Evaluation, who were experts in measurement and evaluation. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to analyses data collected. Face and content validation was used for the study.
Table 1: Predictor's table on Student’s
Variables N Mean SD r df p
Student’s Attitude 75 3.51 0.417
1.136 73 0.016
Academic Achievement 75 3.50 0.402
The result of Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between the student’s attitudes and academic achievement (r = 1.136, df = 73, P<0.05). This indicates that students attitude is a predictor of academic achievement of students in History of Education.
Table 2: Predictor's table on Teacher’s
Variables N Mean SD r df p
Motivational Factors 75 3.79 0.450
0.963 73 0.02
Academic Achievement 75 3.80 0.391
The result of Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between student’s motivational factor and academic achievement (r = 0.963, df = 73, P<0.05). This implies that teacher’s motivational factor is a predictor of academic achievement of students in History of Education.
- DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
The result in table 1 which showed that there is a significant relationship between the student’s attitudes and academic achievement (r = 1.136, df = 73, P<0.05). This indicates that student’s attitude is a predictor of academic achievement of students in History of Education. This findings inline with the research works of Hacieminoglu, (2015) who established that attitudes are influenced by personal opinions, life experiences, and they are shaped by means of education and acquire a different dimension.
The result in table 2 of Pearson Product Moment Correlation showed that there is a significant relationship between student’s motivational factor and academic achievement (r = 0.963, df = 73, P<0.05). This implies that teacher’s motivational factor is a predictor of academic achievement of students in History of Education. This findings agreed with the work of Ejiogu and Herics (1980) who asserted that monetary rewards was consistently cited as major need of Nigerian workers including even well educated and highly placed professionals.
In view of the findings as discussed above and as reflected in the data collected, it is clearly evident that the teachers’ efficiency and quality have always been a source of concern among school administrators and policy makers because it was generally belief that the students’ attitude and motivational factor depend on success and failure of learning outcome of students. Therefore, the teacher’s motivational factor serves as a drive force towards students’ right attitudes. Teacher’s ability to use a range of teaching strategies skillfully and enthusiasm for the subject characterize the success of both students and teachers.
- Based on the findings of this study, the following recommendations were made;
- The policy maker and school administrators should always endeavour to employ only qualified, certified and resourceful teachers to teach history of education at the secondary schools.
- The government and other educational agencies should also encourage and sponsor teachers in the secondary school to attend national and international conferences so as to update their knowledge and skills in teaching and learning of history and policy of education.
- The school administrators should not only employed qualified and certified teachers but also employ teachers with verbal ability and teaching experience.
- Government should also reform and reorganize recruitment process in the secondary school especially in the state, to ensure that not only qualified and certified are recruited but also those who have passion for teaching should be considered.
- The teachers in the secondary school should not stick to the usual method of teaching history but also be creative and up-to-date in their subject area.
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