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The Epitaph of Episteme

London Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Dhruba Chakrabarty , NA
Classification: For Code: 970110
Keywords: NA
Language: English

Since ages, the major mode of existence of human species on this planet is synthesizing the undivided wholeness, at the same time this is the major motivation of their survival also. Through this practice, unlike the other species on earth, they were able to perceive their respective forms and features as an integral part of the whole. But it is also true, that somewhere during such acts this derived knowledge has empowered them to forget to acknowledge the source or origin of such achievements. The deviation that has evolved at this juncture has led the entire mankind from the realm of perceptive knowledge to rational science and from there to the modern era of technology when the entire episteme* is being remoulded to the tune of rational and also instrumental configurations. Life is no more an accessory to the whole; it has now been fragmented into several spheres of definitive versions which are rigidly envious of each other. Such decadence, as history reveals have given birth to incredulities, self deceptive approaches among the human beings in their way of making themselves civilized. Quite obviously this situation has pervaded the natural process of gathering knowledge and consequently reality has become the more important phenomenon than actuality. Therefore, from the unbridled domain of knowledge the civilization is now under mitigation or structuralisation through information. Literally the word information is derived from in-formation, which clearly indicates that definitive norms and forms have replaced indefinite hypothetical notions or beliefs. Dear reader, in such perspective, this article is initiated to quest for the gap emanated so far between perception based knowledge and technology based information and also to contemplate the correlation of the physical sciences, mathematics, politics and economics along with their generative basis.

               

The Epitaph of Episteme

Dhruba Chakrabarty

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  1. ABSTRACT

Since ages, the major mode of existence of human species on this planet is synthesizing the undivided wholeness, at the same time this is the major motivation of their survival also. Through this practice, unlike the other species on earth, they were able to perceive their respective forms and features as an integral part of the whole. But it is also true, that somewhere during such acts this derived knowledge has empowered them to forget to acknowledge the source or origin of such achievements. The deviation that has evolved at this juncture has led the human beings from the realm of perceptive knowledge to rational science and from there to the modern era of technology when the entire episteme[1]* is being remoulded to the tune of rational and also instrumental configurations. Life is no more an accessory to the whole; it has now been fragmented into several spheres of definitive versions which are rigidly envious of each other. Such decadence, as history reveals have given birth to incredulities, self deceptive approaches among the human beings in their way of making themselves civilized. Quite obviously this situation has pervaded the natural process of gathering knowledge and consequently reality has become the more important phenomenon than actuality. Therefore, from the unbridled domain of knowledge the civilization is now under mitigation or structuralisation through information. Literally the word information is derived from in-formation, which clearly indicates that definitive norms and forms have replaced indefinite hypothetical notions or beliefs. Dear reader, in such perspective, this article is initiated to quest for the gap emanated so far between perception based knowledge and technology based information and also to contemplate the correlation of the physical sciences, mathematics, politics and economics along with their generative basis.

  1. FROM PERCEPTION TO CONCEPTION

Basic school geometry tells us that there are three dimensions: - length, breadth and height. The point is dimensionless, the line has length only hence it is one dimensional, the plane is two dimensional having length & breadth and the solid has all the three dimensions, length-breadth-height. Noticeable feature about the point is that since it has no dimensions, therefore has imaginary existence with an isolated

entity beyond physical connections. So everybody has only to feel about a point, it can neither be defined nor be demonstrated. The line is considered to have only one dimension, length, which is also hard to accept since without a minimal breadth,a line can never be visible. So the dimension of a visible line cannot be rationally accepted to be singular otherwise the existence of such line has to be questioned. Thus, when such lines having imaginary breadth constitutes a plane, the rational factors of definition do not implicitly exist there also. This proposition is quite similar regarding the solid. The solid is said to possess all the three dimensions, dear reader, aren’t those three basically linear lengths? Since we have just seen that the length of a line is not at all sufficient to establish rational existence, therefore, the solid also becomes an illusion. As Einstein has opined, reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one. Regarding this structural persistency we all at present are aware of the role of the atomic electrons which are always moving in and out of the structure interacting with the undivided wholeness surrounding the atom to sustain the visible shape or frame of the structure. At the same time the electrons themselves are quantum mechanical components of a probabilistic field oscillating between wave state and particle state manoeuvring wave-particle duality. Therefore, the instrumentation of all the physical structures can be comprehended as to have emanated out of the realm of irrationality/ the innate perceptibility/ the probability, in accordance with both the geometrical and the quantum mechanical viewpoint. According to the etymological view, the word perception indicates to the act of taking cognizance of and the word cognizance is derived from Latin gnoscere which is a verb means ‘to know’. It is quite interesting that, the verb ‘to know’ was often used in old classics as `to make intercourse with’. Therefore it is to infer that making intercourse with the whole, the self entity or existence of a part can be designated. So, perception is the process of interaction or intercourse with the continuum of all the happenings around. Such action eventually causes for what is called, conception, the act to conceive. (And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived – Genesis 4)

The boundary metal or glass of a container is in interacting stance with its surroundings, as a result of which the empty space within is obtained to be filled with for further utilization or interaction. The significance is that, without the container the contained cannot be identified as a usable entity and without the contained the container has no identity or utility, as we say - a water pot or the glass of milk. It analogically exemplifies the container as perception and the contained as the conception. Thus we see that the relation between perception and conception is quite complementary, perception is the method of intercourse with the undivided wholeness beyond any rational paradigm and the conception is the acquisition of such intellectual act pertinent to the perceptive domain, gradually filling it, but never fulfills.

The human psyche is innumerable wavelets of feelings and emotions always in coherence with the undivided wholeness of nature. The shape of these wavelets is apparently fragmented but they are subliminally held to form a continuum of perception, the conjugation of such subliminal activities produces the tacit viscous form of a conception. Knowledge is the explicit effect of such manifestation of the human psyche. So, to perceive something is to step into the presidium of knowledge, rationality has nothing to do with it. But then, the question is why science which etymologically means acquired knowledge is at present so different from its proper significance? Is it simply because of its dependence on empirical rationality underestimating intuition and perception or there are some other factors? Let us make a search of those.

The famous American paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould has remarked in his 1981 book `The Mismeasure of Man’ that, Science is not a heartless pursuit of objective information. It is a creative human activity, its geniuses acting more as artists than as information processors. The statement clearly signifies that the scientific activities are in true sense artistic innovations. Art means `to fit with’ as the words like artisan, artifact explicate. Therefore, an artist creates, expresses the perceptions in the style befitting the harmonious chemistry latently embedded within all the explicit signatures of the entirety. The trail of intuition – perception – conception is the journey of an artistic mind, dear reader, isn’t it the journey of science also? In the prehistoric times, in the hands of the so-called Hominids fire had evolved, they were able to liberate the enfolded energy, the invisible potentiality of matter. But it is a great mistake to consider only the technique of striking stones for such emancipation, it is the perception of the natural order that had caused for such ingenuity. As a consequence of regular intercourse, our primordial ancestors had also conceived that their innovation bears the simultaneous potential for protection and destruction. Along the timeless natural flow their conceptions appeared before the future generations like an envelope who gradually developed the theory of relativity and the quantum mechanical concepts and were acclaimed as Homo sapiens. The term sapiens comes from the adjective sapient, means having great knowledge. Dear reader, it is detailed before that knowledge is the outcome of making intercourse with the entirety, and then it is a serious crime to steal someone’s thunder and is also an act of sheer blasphemy to call our ancestors uncivilized! But the truth is that the crime has been committed and committed peremptorily and perennially. This criminal offense is the plinth of modern scientific civilization. So, science has to depend on rationality to justify such confinement.

Afar from the liberty of perception, captivated modern science had no other option but to become prone to proofs and evidences otherwise anything is regarded as hypothetical. But, till today, clouds are believed to be the cause of rain, even that the clouds are the floating water molecules upon the dust particles, is the perceptive acquisition of the ancient human beings independent of the rationality of scientific endeavours. The experiences we gather through our physical senses are also not absolute, like the chill of the ice or the warmth of the cooking pan, experienced through touch. One can never be able

to proof or define the nomenclature of Chill and Warmth. Here, the true realization of chillness or warmth remains embodied in the perceptive domain beyond verbatim representation. The interactions between the touching skin and the touched material synthesize the sense of feeling cold or warm during the perceptive operation and stores it in the memory for analogous use in future, this is just the truth, but procedural corroboration as per modern scientific requirements can never be obtainable. That the complexity of life forms has emanated from the basic unicellular bacteria is easily definable through the rationality of the empirical findings of molecular biology, but life significantly is not the sum total of multiple cells or nucleotides, it has the spirit manifested in uncountable varieties of nature. The irony is, this spirit or the vigour of life is neither subjective nor objective, it is as dynamic as the sublime connectivity between these two. So if science has to be the episteme or it has any major foothold in the epistemic domain, then it cannot bypass or disregard the non-empirical features. The characterization of categories and the categorization of the characteristics are an auto-immune process of nature, through which she finds the language for communication with the entire natural beings. The effort that science has made so far in terms of rationality and technology is quite contrary to this proposition. The well known Ohm’s Law envisages that the current through the conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference between the ends of the conductor, provided the temperature and other physical states remain unaltered. The physicist George Simon Ohm during the course of his epistemic quest within the physical world unfolded the intricate feature that his so-called `law’ is applicable only in conditioned circumstances, because to him the alteration of temperature and physical states of matter appeared both as subjective and objective reality.

  1. THE MODERNISM OF SCIENCE AND THE SCIENCE OF MODERNISM

To forget that we are hemmed in by facts which are for the most part independent of our desires is a form of insane megalomania. This kind of insanity has grown up as a result of the triumph of scientific technique - Bertrand Russell, The impact of science on society.

The exodus of science from the fatherland of perception & conception had caused for its own identity crisis. It had to proof its existence and virtuosity over the prevailing beliefs and practices of the then human society, mostly religion. This unfair battle had harmed both the inherent factors and the structures of the society and consequently the entire human race fragmented into two extremes, believers and non-believers. Religion, as exercised in the west especially in the European continent was motivated towards worship of God and the belief that the entire creation is emanated out of the will of God. So to seek one’s self distinctiveness he or she used to adhere to the devotion of God or Godly peoples like the saints, priests etc. On the other hand the oriental Dharma significantly relied upon the concept of the innate property of the animate and inanimate. So, more or less the orient proclaimed the men of wisdom as their pathfinders and subsequently adapted themselves to the multiplicity of the life forms to give birth to various social cultures. Actually those were the roots or means of establishment of one’s identity and route of journey for the ultimate consequence of life. It is then quite clear that throughout the globe the primary purpose of religious concepts were to bridge between the creator and the creations as a whole. The ancient books like the Bible, Koran, Zend Avesta, Vedas, Ramayana and The Mahabharata and so many others reflect that during that period of history, the religion left no stone unturned in its activation and motivation both inside and outside the society. The question is then, why science had to battle with?

The level which the religion in the west and dharma in the orient attained was so profound and at the same time virtuous that almost all the living beings were under its purview and the people who had apprehended comparatively the larger proximity in depth, were started to be treated as the messiah the saviour. This was the beginning of the era of lordship, the age-old traditions to perceive the structurelessness with indefinite and insatiable pleasure, slowly but surely were manipulated through the accountability towards definite norms and forms like monarchy, oligarchy etc. Naturally, people with creative self-intellect could not abide the situation much longer and they opted for the former epistemic approach denying the newly upheld hegemony. Thus, dear reader, the world had heard the footsteps of nascent modern science with afresh secular order. Factually, as mentioned above the science and the religion are just the two initiatives to percolate through the implicate orders of the undivided wholeness with a purely epistemic quest. It was basically meant for complement to each other like the two sides of

the same coin, both having the equal judgmental value. As opined by Einstein -"Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind."

But the augmentation of structural format compelled science to compare and ratify its position subjectively and objectively with the prevailing customs and rituals. The, mathematical term for compare is ratio from which the term rationality has originated and modern science at this crucial juncture being the victim of circumstances had no other alternative but to submit itself to rationality. Initially this rational character was motivated towards falsification of the existing norms and forms of the society and subsequently such efforts had revitalized the scientific endeavours with passion and integrity. People opted science as an open window to relieve them from the suffocations of stringent norms and forms and to allow them to enjoy their rights with an overall equity. But the so called popular triumph also again caged science into the documentations of successes obtained. As we all are aware that- nothing succeeds like success, naturally the experts and the specialists were made to appear on stage to administer the support of people. Thus, the modern science had promoted itself as quite similar to the religious proclamations which was basically treated as retrograde and obstinate.

The proliferation of supportive base for modern science within a few decades has triggered so many awesome consequences that have fragmented science into numerous branches acting subversively against each other. Dear reader, just consider the humiliation of modern science that even politics have scavenged the flesh of it in order to proclaim political science! Days of advent of science with an epistemic ideal have never dreamt of terrorizing human beings or to produce any such machinery which ultimately will cause for such loss of its own significance and relevance. But it has happened and happened in such a tune that the benevolence of philanthropic perception is forced to evacuate its place for jingoistic experts or specialists where meticulous surveillance of enigmatic politicians and dogmatic

bureaucrats left no place at all for any kind of creative evaluation. The observations of empirical

procedures are merely a documentation of data obtained through repetitive precision, the fixed parameters of the laboratory is too inadequate to depict the whole perspective. This deterministic technique of modernism has enrolled science to use the supportive mass base only not the implications of true scientific ideology. So becoming parametric even the greatest scientific theories were significantly narrowed and parched to such an extent that presently even a minute alteration of parameter can effectuate major paradigm-shift. The obviously deterministic mechanical system of modernism actually has had such covert initiatives which ultimately declared its alacrity and the entire episteme has become its helpless prey.

But, there is no dispute in accepting that we the animal beings along with the inanimate beings are `of the nature, for the nature, by the nature’. So all our potential questions are related to the eternal sequence of `to be or not to be’ and are subsequently answerable to nature’s will and accreditation. Human beings’ perceptive ability is genetically modified to transcend the rational paradigm and mechanical parameters and to reach for those unfathomable depths where cause and effect are radically concurrent. This is science in its most irrevocable manifestation. Therefore, like the baby exploiting the mother in order to survive and perceive the significance of the parental affection, every natural being has open access to comprehend the hidden connections underlying the facts and features of nature. Such an inquest has led the mankind to affirm the theorizations of the entirety throughout the past few centuries. Then why `science’ is to be recommended as a distinct entity, a discipline to be taught, to be indoctrinated? The terms often used like scientific knowledge, scientific explanation, and scientific lifestyle clearly indicates that seed of distinction has been proficiently sown. Such a noticeable split is not justifiable by means of even rationality, so this distinction between science and subjectivity is to be considered as a purposefully drawn and fabricated picture. Consequently, the true notion of science has been adulterated with the pollutants like absolute empirical dependency, terminological jargons and last but not the least, technology. The sequel is recognized by modernism with a deterministic view as science and technology. Such mutilation of science has synchronously affected the entire epistemic field and culture of human societies. Outwardly they look well-built but inwardly brittle and reliant on complicated mechanical systems.

The human society as revealed through cognitive study is not the accumulation of members or constituent beneficiaries, rather it is a very large network of relations between them which dynamically expands to include newer factors of mutual cooperation as time progresses. So this inherent relativity is the basic property of a society, but in the modern human society the relations are being interpreted through mechanical terms provided by the sequel of science and technology. Simply because of such dependency on the artificial outfits the entire mankind is in a delusional paranoia about its own nudity. Let us now discuss about the `term’ often used by modern science and technology. The English word term is obtained from old French`terme’ meaning limit in time, set or appointed period and is first recorded in 14th century as “a word or phrase used in a limited or precise sense”. Therefore, to state or declare a phenomenon publicly with the help of specific terms is in fact deliberate concealment and termination of truth and simultaneous instigation to further concoction. This recurrent practice naturally gives birth to determination, dear reader, you are quite aware of the sense carried by the prefix De, which is the etymological origin of the definite article the. Thus the vigorous use of the so called `terms’ instead of language is prerogative to mould multidimensional perceptive achievements into definite paradigm of despotic methodology. Factually, the natural language of human beings evolved as a consequential expression of our prehistoric ancestors. The ancient human beings at first used to make sounds (which the animals still do) as a reaction to their immediate experiences obtained while interacting with their natural surroundings in order to make room for themselves in that primordial world. As discussed earlier, these experiences as a whole are the epistemic acquisition of the mankind itself synonymous to science. So those immediate vocalizations of perception and conceptions had the natural capability to communicate about the implicate orders of the wholeness much more eloquently than any other means. As an example, linguistically physique means the body and the term physics means study of matter, but both the expressions are originated from Greek `physis’ meaning `nature. Because of the fact that nature has constituted the body of every living organism out of the elementary particles, the interactive behaviors of animals or plants are the obvious consequences of the physiochemical properties of those elementary particles. So, these physical behaviors and expressions are the best effective option to contemplate the physics of elementary particles and subsequent matters. The inanimate matters and the living organisms are basically the structured forms, the visible actualities of the elementary particles. Physically, every single human being possesses the innate potential to attain this conception himself and at the same time to exert emotional expressions. Therefore, evolvement of science and evolvement of natural language are two simultaneous events. So it is to infer that the open system of expression based on any natural language is truly much more competent to hover in the actual epistemic domain of science than the alien deterministic terms guided by the rationalities of mechanical systems. Moreover, the linguists have revealed that the entire variety of natural languages evolved in order to represent the happenings, the occurrences, the actions and science is purely an actual fact. On the contrary, the so called modernization with a deterministic ally has procured their science to proclaim as actor too purposefully to relegate the action. The effect is endemically disastrous for the entire civilization.

The action is a continuous course of the act which in essence transmits the complement of every contributor both necessarily and sufficiently to comply with the natural order. It is quite indifferent to the end result, no accreditation is therefore impressed upon any particular entity whatsoever during the entire course. The action has two corresponding spheres of influence, the actor and the acted upon. Through the actors the act significantly permeates to reach the acted upon to breed manifold manifestation. The actor is therefore has a spatial and temporal dimension as a part of the whole action. It has just to play its role with full dedication on stage without any domineering attitude towards the whole drama. So to substantiate science as an actor is purely a reductionist view that ultimately leads to severe subsidence of the whole epistemic field. To exemplify the situation let us consider the compound H2O. This compound is found in three different states. The solid state is named ICE, the liquid state is WATER and the gaseous state is STEAM. All these three different states are used in different purposes according to specific requirements. One cannot drink the ICE, hold the STEAM or shape the WATER with free hands. The fact is these three states are mere actors who take part in the whole action sustained in the molecular formation of H2O. The inherent properties of the H2O embedded within its molecular structure is the action of releasing heat or gaining heat from the nature to form the visible actualities of those three different states and to enable them for apparently different purposes. But, the course of action of H2O continues to act as it is inextricable with the natural order of the H2O molecules more precisely, the chemical bondage of the elementary particles and subsequent sharing of quantum energy.

Therefore, to consider science as actor is such an anomaly that adjudicates the consideration that the human beings are the sole proprietor of the ethically subsidized episteme and the whole human society subconsciously accepts that they are to rule the nature. The hominids were not the rulers they were used to be ruled by the entirety but the Homo sapiens by virtue of such anomalous preconceptions deduce various tools and techniques to overcome or regulate the natural occurrences. Thus the science of modernism upheld the technology as more credible than the intuitive perceptions and conceptions and provoked the society to accept it so.

  1. THE TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND THE SOCIAL TECHNOLOGY

Famous historian Sir Joseph Arnold Toynbee has opined that the relations between the human beings are the components of societal network. The above inference of Sir Toynbee quite appealingly suggests that the human beings are mere actors as mentioned in the previous paragraph and the relations between them is the action which actually sustains and extends the essence of human social civilization. But this proposition has been ignored and maliciously rejected. The human beings are at present far away from the actual fact, on the contrary they are being used to act factually. The deviation has caused for mechanization and subsequent fragmentations of the actual science with an academic dogma and specific orientations of the society as a whole. The belief that science is an actor has amazingly carried the entire cognitive thought process and creative surge of the human beings towards the deterministic mechanical interpretation of the natural order both in and out of the social paradigm. Let us take the medical science as an example. The ANTIBIOTIC therapy is the widely chosen and acclaimed mode of treatment in medical science for last few decades. But linguistically the term antibiotic signifies anti- against and biotic- pertaining to life. So, to search for a cure for a disease to sustain life, the modern society has to opt for the technique of opposing life. Quite naturally it’s a dangerous proposition that directly interferes with the relational network or the non-linear dynamics of microbial life forms with the advent of building a new framework based on cause and effect. This factual act of building Cartesian framework instead of multidimensional network necessarily and sufficiently has caused for an aggressive mechanical hindrance to the Autopoietic                (< Greek: autos = self, poiein = to produce means self-(re)production) system of the cellular life. Since the relation between the human beings are the consequences of non-material and non-linear forms and processes which at the same time cognitive and self reproductive, therefore such hindrance must is an act of pure malevolence towards the hermeneutics (art of interpretation) of the social existence of human beings. As the most significant theoretical physicist of 20th century David Bohm has stated in his 1987 book ‘Science, Order and Creativity` that – all the proposed remedies are actually the different forms of the same illness that they aim to cure. (P-209)

The genetic code of living beings controls and regulates the behavior and other inherent characteristics of a single being. After the formation of societies this genetic codes differentiated themselves into families or colonies to cooperate with the environmental surroundings they were circumscribed by. Thus each genetic code bore the designation of a particular family of species and each member of that colony or family was in turn designated by the genetic code of that group. Since such differentiations were designed by nature herself then the subliminal non-linearity was also to persist in accordance with the natural order which itself is non-linearly dynamic. Now, if any particular organism belonging to a family is being acted upon through linear mechanical framework arbitrarily then it is evident that the entire colony or family should re-act in order to sustain the equilibrium of the inherent Autopoietic nonlinearity. This response is also at the same time cognitive and self reproductive and truly speaking, the graveness of the situation is far beyond the reach of the parameters of technology. Basically technology is invented to draw short-cuts between materialistic demands and fulfillments and to attain such goal, the entirety is to be split into several nodes with a definite statutory view of subject and corresponding object. But as stated earlier, true action can be accomplished through a dynamic flow between the subject and object so that the total potentiality is sustained. It is therefore never conducive to the social existence of human beings to cope with any kind of deterministic system for a long time.

The microscope is a useful tool to observe the micro-organisms and depending upon such observation, the medical practitioners are used to diagnose and treat the disease. Dear readers, as we all know that the classical Newtonian physics is mostly related to matter, so it is better to call it the Newtonian materialism which in fact is geometrically based on Euclidean two or three dimensional space and mathematically follows the Cartesian split. The microscope and so many other such apparatus are built in accordance with those basic provisions of Newtonian materialism. So, when the micro-organisms are observed through such apparatus, the act of observation fails to be continuous since the performance of the apparatus is maneuvered through the formative influence of Euclidean reality and the microbes lie at the infinite dimensional probabilistic field. Actually all the technological devices possess such limitations and lack the required competency to observe any natural entity inextricably connected with multiplicity, it can only be helpful to see or watch it. The network of relations between human beings is explicitly a probabilistic wave field with infinite dimension and their characteristic features are purely non-material embellished with novelty. This very intricate feature of human societies contain the virtues like love, fraternity, mercy, woven with hatred, apartheid, jealousy like immoralities and the truth is, human beings have been characterized with all these dispositions by the nature herself to live with for thousands of years. The relational network of human society has to accommodate and embed all these properties and sustain itself. So, in order to observe the society with a perfunctory attitude through a peremptory approach is in fact, leads to obliteration of the inherent harmony. It is a mistake to comprehend structuralism where there is only functionalism is persistent. Like the microscopic observations of the microbes the application of any kind of mechanical vigilance to the human society is therefore at best ineffective, since the so called observer and the observing medium both are biased with the intricacies mentioned above where the observer and the observed naturally becomes the integral part of the same action.

Another significant feature of the relational network between human beings is the evolvement of culture. The culture is basically the conceived essence of the pervasive relational network existing since the primordial stage and is certain to continue its proliferation as long as the survival of mankind. Different junctures of the human societies have fostered several values and beliefs which are presumably the visible actualities of the tacit network of relations extremely necessitated and profoundly sustained by the natural order. The fact is, as much as the human beings have acted through the network, whether in favour or against, the cultures generated and simultaneously the generated cultures also has invoked the human beings to further specify their positions and propriety within the network graphs through active participation. Such complementarities imply that the propagation of human relations are like the ocean of energy, which re-creates the ripples of cultural exposition like matters at the surface level just to provide the componential identity or meaning to the subliminal activities of the social beings as a whole. As the renowned poet William Butler Yeats commented, ‘Culture is the sanctity of the intellect’ and the word intellect etymologically means discernment, a perception, understanding i.e. the sum of the cognitive facilities of human beings. It is then quite comprehensible that the widespread social networks are meant for ensuring the identity of the self through the continuous course of perceptive act and for justifying the singularity as the constituent of plurality. Every name is therefore a denotation of some kind of act and every noun is therefore a verb in actuality consumed by the societal network that overcomes the physical limitation. The society and the science is therefore an impeccable foliage complete in itself always negotiable to and compatible with the timeless order of nature.

The ancestral human society was the subject of nature both implicitly and explicitly. The nourishment and punishments they had to secure from their foster nature had in other way evoked certain values and beliefs to weave the relational network among those. So basically the relations between the ancient human beings were the hidden connections of the values and beliefs streamed through the emotional attachments. Yes, certainly there was a technique, a technique to welcome the nourishments and to overcome the punishments. But it is must to acknowledge that the sheer necessity of those techniques and the subsequent chances to avail those, were in true sense the sacred facilitations of nature. The perception of making of the wheels and the boats out of the tree trunks is a consequential evidence of this proposition. Thus our ancient predecessors were used to oppose the nature befitting the natural order and such act of mutual veneration was in fact the science of the present and the conscience for the future.

Modern Technology on the other hand is the definitive version of parametric systems, etymologically meaning systematic treatment of an art, craft or technique. That is to adhere to the Cartesian split of cause and effect, the subject and object. But the societal network as detailed above spreads through the probabilistic field of the human mental realm to be destructured and restructured in accordance with the network’s spontaneous regulations. Naturally, no one event within such a domain can be associated with definite responsibilities as the cause or the effect of another, whereas technology, by virtue of deterministic mechanical orientations opt for readily definable structures and act for its sustenance and subsequent maintenance. So to adopt and adapt technology is either to accept a particular design of the society or to configure the relational network in terms of the mechanical parameters adopted. Evidently, this is not at all a proposal compatible with the generative order of the societal network. But the fact is, modern technology has infested every nook and cranny of the human society with an invasive gesture to dictate the future of mankind. Such a role of technology is at present proactive to bewilder the human psyche with affable assurances of being `technologically yours’ and ultimately to re-establish the societal network to be ‘technically yours’. That means, the creative human way of thinking originally initiated into natural harmony is now infectiously motivated towards mechanical hegemony. Let us cite an example. During the recent past, families dependent on agricultural lands used to live at the same residential complex preferably nearer to the land with at least 10 to 20 other members including the land labours. The head of such families was to be the oldest man by natural selection who was quite vigilant about the needs and interests of every family member who used to call themselves as relatives like brother, sister, uncle, aunt, grandpa, grandma etc. The fact was that, they nested merrily under the same roof on the same soil, shared the common home address. But as soon as the industrialization came

into vogue and agricultural lands ceased to exist, the family network began to unfasten causing these families gradually to become extinct. The recurrence of this process compelled the human beings to suffer from identity crisis and this critical perspective necessitated the interference of technology into the societal network as the readymade solution. Eventually, we the human beings could neither recover our actual identity nor could establish an afresh one. Presently a single person has many residential addresses like permanent/present etc. but actually inhabits nowhere, keeps so many phone numbers like official/personal etc. purposefully differentiated and more than one e-mail id to substantiate his fragmented entity.

Dear reader, the changes thus occurred has connived a wider malaise in the entire human society. The technology has brought the organizational alterations on the basis of obviously deterministic rationalities to utilize the society as a well-designed tool for achieving specific purposes. But the natural change processes embedded in the relational network of the social beings act to mirror the basic properties of life that adapts, recreates, diversifies through the human psyche and tinged with various emotional motivations. The mandate imposed by the technology is therefore completely alien to the

actualities of life’s self-generated web-pattern. As a result, the function of the society is becoming obsolete day by day whereas the structure is becoming overwhelmingly sophisticated and the social beings are often bled with the thorns of such paradox. This paradoxical situation and the subsequent partition between the function of the societal network and the imposed technical structure are quite conducive to the practice of commercialization. Few among the social beings have opted for an unhealthy treaty with cheap commercial values as an escape route to such depression with the dream of reestablishment of their lost identity. But in fact neither the hailed sophistications of technology nor the commercial entrepreneurships have the required competence to design the change for the innate natural science of the living individuals and communities of the human society. So the dichotomy is on an ever increasing trail and the mankind has been bisected between two extremes. One is blindly favoring the techno-commercial sophistry while the other is always on their toes two counteract. Consequently the belief, faith, the rudiments of the relations between individuals are becoming feeble. Such an era is unprecedented in the history of civilization so far.

So, it is to contemplate that the effort of specification and specialization with a deterministic technical approach has caused for a serious disruption to the harmony of the perceptive field of actual science and also in the human organizational domain as well. Nowadays it is commonly opined that `the state is a large family’, let us see the effect of the introduction of specific design there also. Presently the Democratic System is exercised and acclaimed politically to maintain and sustain the statehood throughout the globe. That is, the so called family is being shaped with parameters conducive to the implementation of the democratic system. As a result very much unlike the human societal family there is no actual relational network between the head and the other members. Here the head is no other than the product procured through the voting procedure of the election machinery. Therefore, the producers or voters manufacture their leader or representative through the very much rational parameters of the voting mechanism where the state himself becomes the consumer connected through the technical norms and forms of the democratic system with the voters to substantiate the election machinery in due prospective. Likewise, the role of the products also becomes constitutional and not relational in respect of the producers concerned. The tragic truth is, due the absence of life’s own natural network the deterministic machinery soon unveils itself to act as mercenary/military to deploy domination of the state with ruthless intimidations and to censor democracy itself. Thus the democracy is derived into a mere mechanical system that first alienates the social beings as the elector and the elected and then reinstates the societal network from relational to rational. But the true essence of democracy is in life’s ever dynamic inherent culture that at the same time generates tolerance of an individual towards the ideas and opinions of the others and essentially replaces them with mutual coherence in order to sustain the relational web. So,the democratic power of the human societies is implicitly meant for not to rule but to rely, as it is always non-linear by nature and never derivable or divisible into definite technical terms. Since the civilization is at present on the trail of adopting any kind of technical divisibility, the true significance of democracy, thus is being delimited to the extent of a device of ruling.

V.    THE EDUCATION, FORMS AND FEATURES

We all understand without any dilemma that the planet we live on is nowhere a plane surface in actuality. But replacing this actuality by reality we contemplate geometrically that one dimensional straight line is possible to be drawn between at least two points on this surface. Accordingly we also struggle to find such two points on this earth at the minimum-most distance in order to establish the virtual linearity between them. Such a quest has finally led us to recurrent conversion of the existing space all around us into points so that we can be vigilant about them all the time. But the truth is, as told earlier in this article that the points are also delusive since they have no dimension at all. So to ascertain any specific connection between them we had to define our concepts with the Cartesian form of coordinate system i.e. the three dimensional field. Thus truth is derived into reality and subsequently our beliefs and ingenuities, our ideas and actions are rigorously being downsized to be compatible to look real. Dear reader, the effect of this methodology is quite confusing in the sense that most of us subconsciously are reliant on the non-linear human relations to cope with the apparent inconsistencies of the surrounding nature but in physical performances we are to represent as linearly disciplined. So we the human beings are being circumstanced to maintain mutually exclusive faculties of the psyche to be the fittest for survival. The human psyche, on the other hand is an undivided whole, the repository of conscious memories that nestle all the creative acts and endeavours of human beings in relation to nature. Therefore, to compartmentalize the psyche is to debunk the ability to comprehend the whole and subsequently to transform the entire affability into sheer competitiveness. It is historically true that all such forms of competition promote subliminal violence. It’s a matter of great regret that such a destructive activity is being percolated through the society in the form of education for last few decades.

There is no doubt to accept that the basic aim of education is the unfoldment of mental power i.e. to expose the hidden connections between the mind and matters. This orientation was felt necessary since the human beings’ existence was essentially contemplated as the nature’s contribution in simultaneity with the changes of the life forms. So the basic purpose of education is to bring awareness about the influences of the entirety in order to establish self identity as a part of the whole. That is why the English word nature implies both the innate properties and the surroundings as well. Naturally, the continuous and spontaneous flow of life is the appropriate avenue to comprehend the science of these two cohesive manifestations and at the same time to unfold the invisible potentialities of human beings. Any structural gateway therefore is not at all able to attain the adequacy of such acquisitions. But as soon as the bell of modern civilization began to ring to the tune of centripetality, the acquired knowledge quite controversially transformed into basic capital of newly civilized core of human beings. The social history of civilization has so many documentary evidences in support that the power centralism began to permeate through the proprietorial route of knowledge capital and vice versa. The fundamental requirement of power (not energy) and capital is a definite structure to proclaim legitimacy with communicative eloquence. Mostly due to this reason formal education was made to evolve which as a puppet of capital still serves the power centers throughout the globe.

It is therefore quite clear that the prevailing educational structure is dimensionally different from the true essence of the basic aim of education and it is also to infer that decades of practice of such a travesty has deviated the human psyche far from introspection. Consequently, the educated human beings have engaged themselves to determine the indeterminate and to divide the indivisible and during this repetitive precision like the people with multiple addresses but residing nowhere, they have been intellectually fragmented enough to be disconnected from the basic spirit of life. In this catastrophic situation, this deterministic education system has termed them as competitors to achieve materialistic goals and it is true that the competitors are never affable to themselves, they annihilate each other. But the informal kind of knowledge being in tacit but firm relation with the societal network under direct persuasion of nature is always creative, recreative and live. So the mechanistic view of life projected by the formal education system is not at all resilient to any awkward unseen situation. The human society thus has been differentiated between two clear cut regions of formal and informal knowledge.

It is a fact that human society is an organization bearing its own credentials and deficiencies as well. As a matter of fact, life’s flow has two different orders. The explicate order specifies the physical structures through interactions with the matters and the implicate order is the continuous generation of tacit knowledge through the embedded mutually cohesive relational network. And these two orders complement each other to sustain life’s growth and progress. What was to be done by us was to reform the societal credibility to the tune of the optimization of human values and simultaneously to learn from the embedded informal network basis to meet up the deficiencies. But, this has not been done. The definitive approach of modern education system and the subsequent Cartesian dogma is comprehensively reliant upon the formal structure and ignores the informal tacit functioning within the society. Consequently, like any other mechanistic organization, the human society on the basis of formal education is procuring systems that have grown out of the soil already deficient of life’s intrinsic qualities of mutual network generation. Therefore the systems as such looking healthy and ameliorating

actually become perilous for the society. As an example, the computer systems, the internet based banking systems and the social networkings may be contemplated. The theoretical basis of these systems is the properties of the elementary particles and we all know that these elementary particles are embedded with nature’s science and acts accordingly. But the implementation of these systems are mostly made in the field of information where only utility factors along with the technicalities are taken into consideration and to make those ‘user friendly`, the probabilistic nature of all physical fields is purposefully being veiled. The user on the other hand is a living being always connected physically and mentally with the nature’s own network, so when such a user adopts the system and attempts to adapt to the new system, severe discrepancies evolve. Then another system is being made to appear as a stringent rescue measure which must also has the same deficiencies of being alienated from the natural order. So unfathomable malaise pervades the social beings like an infectious disease from which no immediate remedy is available to the mankind.

Mathematically speaking, the notion of rationality is basically a ratio of the form p/q i.e. comparison

between two parts of the same entity or between the part and the whole. During such evaluation therefore fragmentation of the whole must be complied with and subsequently the difference |1-p/q| remains always. So the rational or formal knowledge delivered through the educational system is quite inadequate to cogitate upon the sequence of facts to follow in the entire epistemic field. Consequently when a nation resorts to foster political violence in a neighboring nation, such a plan is being endorsed by the educated class of people paying no heed to the age-old pacifist beliefs and ideals of non-violence, tolerance and plurality, moreover, the act of someone paying homage to Mahatma Gandhi at Rajghat carrying the Football*[2] with, is never being condemnable.

The quantum theory envisages that all systems contain subsystems which are continuously fluctuating and these minimal fluctuations cause for optimal changes in the visible actuality. In true sense, these fluctuations are the signatures of life, the spirit, conceived as the ATMAN by the oriental culture since ages. So to neglect that fluctuation in order to sustain the surface reality with awful deliberations is therefore disastrous, since those are the natural properties of the system’s physical components fortified with generative basis. Another serious issue is that the deterministic view of life presented through the prevailing education system has projected the material structures as optimally durable and veiled the innate fluctuations with positivistic efforts. Consequently the social human beings fancied with such educative principles have decided to adhere to and accept these realities as truths and have become keener to mechanics rather than the meaning. So the very much rational education system has been successful to convert the entire social paradigm to money earning mechanism i.e. from human beings to human resources and this subliminal slavery has blatantly deprived them of their aliveness. Quite obviously education nowadays is nothing but merely the medium of obtaining the certificate for earning bread and butter.

All these occurrences have a direct impact on the societal network. The live languages containing the passion and emotions of the social beings and their mutual interactions provide the essential meaning to the dynamics of the society as a whole and the quest for the essential meaning of everything around is in turn fuels the motivation for human existence on this earth. But the subliminal slavery implanted through the modern education system has made people so much deterministically absorbed that they hardly at present produce natural expressive sounds to expose their sentiments and emotions, at best they are prone to use a mechanical medium like computers or mobile-apps to disclose themselves where even the death news of a dear one is to be ‘liked`. The human beings were used to cry, weep or sob in expression to their mental sadness or grief but presently the mechanically generated ideograms like emoji or templates forwarded through the cell-phones to signify the mental state. All the festivities in the society are now being exercised under the ‘third party administrator` and the ‘commercial sponsorships` to ensure the structural fabrications only, the actual functional practice has been obliterated with the excuse of impracticability. These festivities significantly were evolved to weave and sustain the natural dynamics of the society through the unspoken forms of experiences shared by human beings, so the mechanization of those is certainly accelerating the regression of human bondage with a more fatal consequence. It is essentially true that the explicit form of educational learning had emanated out the nonlinearly dynamic culture of the tacit connectivity to sustain life as a whole. But the artificial modes of exchange are based on linear norms and forms, the parameter of definite formulations. So whenever adjudged inconsistent those are being monitored, manipulated or censored. This deterministic censorship upon the spontaneous relational web of life is proclaimed as a progressive contribution of education which has inhibited the natural learning abilities of the entire community, what an irony! Albert Einstein had uniquely opined - The only thing that interferes with my learning is my education.

  1. THE SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY OF MATHEMATICS

The discussions made above has significantly disclosed the descent of knowledge or science as a whole from the spontaneity of continuous generative order to the deterministic discrete domain of technology and commercialized education. Now it is time to look into the actual subjective philosophy of Mathematics such as the Calculus, beyond its methodological viewpoints prescribed in the educational curriculum.

Throughout the globe nature has expressed its creativity in an explicit manner through emergent varieties. In a word, alive nature means variance and vice versa. Since the subjective science is in actuality the metaphor to replicate the nature’s expressions then quite obviously to step into the true epistemic domain is to contemplate the implicate degrees of variance pertaining to the nature’s variable entity. That is why, at the very initial stage of calculus, words like variable, function, limit, continuity, differentiation, integration appear. Dear reader, as we are all aware of that, these are basically not mere mathematical terms, on the contrary these are the expressional evolvements of human beings during

intercourse with the nature with a holistic approach and that very approach triggered the contemplation about the pervasive degrees of variances all over. In the literary sense, the word function denotes performance; the mathematical function is therefore the performance of the variables, a conjecture that represents the relation among the different degrees of variables that constitute the entirety. Therefore, to conceive the science of the entirety men had opted to differentiate its functional properties on the basis of the similar differences and the different similarities of the variables.

But what we see and what we observe are not the same, we observe the continuum of the virtual world and at the same time we see the discreteness of the material world. Because of such dichotomy in our comprehension we are to adjudge the continuity of the functional behavior with respect to the all probable variations i.e. all possible significance of the variable even from the opposite perspectives. When all such criterions of the observable natural entity are fulfilled and assurance regarding the continuity of the relevant function is obtained then only the quest for the actual nature of the function, the differentiability of the variable is deemed feasible.

df(x)/dx  =Lt(h→0)  (f(x+h)-f(x))/h

Therefore, this wellknown equation predicates that, to differentiate a function is in fact to attempt to sense its wholeness, its pervasiveness both necessarily and sufficiently as h (the increment and change) tends to zero signifies. In this perspective the essence of differentiation comes out of the realm of mathematical operations and aims to know the life’s ever emerging forms and features. But only differentiation of the function never completes the science of emergence of variety, it remains half done. To realize the functional entirety the parts obtained after differentiation known as the differentials are required to be integrated, summed up. The English word integrate is a verb originated from the word integer which linguistically means (in-not + tangere- to touch) the untouchable/ indivisible whole. Subsequently then to integrate signifies a procedure to access the undivided whole. But the astounding feature is that the process of integration results to emergence of a constant along with the original function. Dear reader, such an emergence is quite a significant phenomenon pertinent to the variances in nature concerned. This emerged constant neither is the consequence of any formal subjectivity nor is the fastidious preparation to attain experimental objectivity, factually it is the ability of self generation embedded within all the variable differential constituents of entirety. It is an essential property of nature to sustain the implicit aliveness. We all know that the power of an atom to combine with others named valency emerges during formation of a compound which is a self generated physical property of the elementary particles (electrons), the emergence of the constant of integration is quite factually similar to this phenomenon of physical chemistry. So all the variances manifested through the varieties of the functional variables is an exhibition of a self-generative order embedded and sustained within the nature’s holistic network. Science therefore is the perception regarding this constant’s being and the simultaneity of differentiation and integration in order to justify the fact that nature is a compounded whole.

The subjective domain of Mathematics is in actuality an extended metaphor for human life and aliveness. That is why the emergence of the constant of integration quite comprehensively resembles the proposition of the Roger’s theory of nursing that:-‘Man is a unified whole possessing his own integrity and manifesting characteristics that are more than and different from the sum of his part`. Let us now look at the human societies; these actually are the self-generative network that mirrors the continuous functional expression of the variable human nature. Therefore to comprehend the societal mathematics the characteristic variance has to be contemplated holistically. The formal structure of the society should also have to be tuned in such a fashion as to accommodate the simultaneity of both differentiation and integration and subsequent self-generation of the societal network. Any mechanical imposition in this regard is in true sense a deterministic fragmentation to inhibit the aliveness of the society and the concerned human beings thereof.

  1. CONCLUSION

As discussed earlier in this article, the controversial adoption of knowledge as capital had consequently brought into effect the fragmentation or disintegration of the epistemic domain as a whole. It was also mentioned that capital and structure complement each other with proprietorial ambience. This mechanical alliance is obviously the zeitgeist of the history of modernism that we still bear through our lifestyle and prevalent ideologies. So it is very much tortuous and reasonably erroneous to fix any particular responsibility upon any particular past with the accusation of being the seedbed of such incongruity. Rather, attention should have to be given to realize the discrepancy between the actual fact of science and the factual act of scientific exhibitionism.

In Sanskrit Language the word ‘stree`(female) semantically means `where conception is generated and integrated’ i.e. it’s a container or repository where conceptual emergence and integration occurs in simultaneity. Since English and Sanskrit both have the same Indo-European root, likewise the English words containing the prefix `str’ signify and explicate the nesting of integrated conceptions. Such as the word strong nestles the conception of integrated strength and the word strength conveys the conception of emergent physical or mental power. The word street quite often represents the integrated opinions of emerged from the ordinary peoples and the word stream semantically transpires the conception of flowing together. It is obvious then structure will signify the embedment and subsequent emergence of conceptions within its boundary. The question therefore is what is to be called the structure, just the outermost thinnest layer of the peripheral outline that defines the shape or the holistic assimilation of the contained and the container? According to the expression of respected Tagore in his article ‘Paschim yatrir diary`- (The diary of a westbound traveler); ‘the main part of the cup is not its porcelain walls, it is the gap where juice is filled, the boundary is just a navigation. The wooden pole and a tree is not the same thing. The invisible roots occupy much more space underground than the erected visible trunk and that is why the entire tree gets the essential supply of life through those roots`. So it is to infer that structure in essence is a visible actuality in order to sustain the generative culture of the invisible potentials. Structure is then never be conducive to any form of rigidity or fragmentation and obviously meant to promote innate fluctuations within the probabilistic field. The contained and the container therefore falsify each other and this coherent falsifiability is truly a necessary condition for scientific or epistemic quest though not sufficient. As the laws of thermodynamics envisage the worsening of things in order to maximize entropy, then quite convincingly it is unattainable for any structure to conform with particular parametric constraints forever.

Although the technology and its deterministic view had initially got the endorsement of men’s epistemic quest, but the miserable failure to channelize its advent through and to the true scientific acuity has consequently brought the parametric rigidity and structuralisation of the entire episteme. Naturally these structures being not accessible to all, the entire acquired knowledge of the human beings has been dissociated into manifold classes. This very situation was quite cozy for the financial capital to flap its wings with the profit making outfit and ancillary networks. Thus the entire episteme*[3] is at present turned into a happy grazing of the global financial capital which has ignored the natural generative order and proclaimed the simultaneity of differentiation and integration as irrelevant with the annotation of not being profit-invigorating. The famous author Oscar wilde may had much before foreseen the time and opined:- People nowadays know the price of everything and the value of nothing.

It is mentioned earlier in this article that the dawn of modern civilization staged for the agreement between knowledge and capital. The great oriental epics, the Greek and Egyptian mythologies reflect that the so called agreement persisted on the basis of mutual reverence. Ravana of The Ramanaya represents the economic capital and knowledge very much alike Lord Krishna in The Mahabharata. So quite naturally the self generative culture of the human society and the creative entity of the human beings were somehow used to be endorsed by the capital and vice-versa in the form of education and the academia. But the invasion of global capitalism through the mechanically structured modern technology and in-formation has transformed knowledge the servant of corporate consumerism and consequently education has become the major communication of the corporate value of consumerism.

Since all the corporate and conglomerates are managed by academically successful toppers of the academia, the system adopted there are always materialistically objective and never conducive to self-generative culture and subsequent free play of mind. Actually speaking, those all time first boys are quite inept of generating anything new themselves, since they personally have all the time emulated their teacher who are mostly the experts of repetitive precision in toto to top the examinations. Therefore in any beyond syllabus unprecedented situation they fall in doldrums and finally submit or compromise helplessly and unconditionally. The boats of the enlightened global citizens are therefore at present sailing behind such a pilot ship that is sure to drown itself within the swirled waves that eddies around the deceptive rocks of corporate consumerism.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Wholeness and the implicate order – David Bohm.
  2. The impact of science on society - Bertrand Russell.
  3. Is future given? – Ilya Prigogine.
  4. The logic of scientific discovery – Karl Popper.
  5. The Blind Watchmaker – Richard Dawkins.
  6. The Ramayana.
  7. The Mahabharata.
  8. Collections from Tagore by Viswabharati.
  9. The hidden connections: - Fritjof Capra.
  10. Ideas and opinions: - Albert Einstein.


[1] * Greek word, especially means scientific knowledge.

[2] * The Football- The nuclear football (also known as the atomic football, the president's emergency satchel, the button, the black box, or just the football) is a briefcase, the contents of which are to be used by the President of the United States to authorize a nuclear attack while away from fixed command centers, such as the White House Situation Room. It functions as a mobile hub in the strategic defense system of the United States.- WIKIPEDIA, The free encyclopedia.

[3] * Greek word, especially means scientific knowledge.



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