Academic Performance of Secondary Students in Relation to their Study Habits and Socio-economic Status: A Descriptive Survey Study

London Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Dr.Md Rofikul Islam , NA
Classification: NA
Keywords: NA
Language: English

The appraisal of academic performance has been a regular process in the educational field for a long time. The aim of education is to bring the all-round development of an individual by imparting knowledge, skill and imbibing values in them. But with the passage of time, the aim of formal education is being changed from all-round development of an individual to solely the academic success of the students which narrows down the broader meaning and aim of education. The contemporary study was carried out to examine the association between the academic achievement of secondary students with their study habits and socio- economic status. The researchers took 250 students, selected from different secondary schools of Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh as the sample of the study by using simple random sampling technique. Study Habits Scale (2015) developed by Rani and Jaidka and Socio-economic Status Scale developed and standardized by Kalia and Sahu (2012), as instruments were administered to collect the data. The researchers found that academic achievement, study habits and socio-economic status were correlated with each other. The study revealed that no critical statistical difference exists in scholastic achievement, study habits and socio-economic status among the secondary students on the grounds of gender and locality but the significant difference exists among the secondary students in academic achievement, study habits and socio-economic status on the grounds of their school types which means the significant difference etween govt. and private schools. The study also revealed that there was significant main and interaction effect of study habits and socio- economic status on academic achievement. It further showed that study habits and socio-economic status were significant predictors of academic achievement of the secondary students.

               

Academic Performance of Secondary Students in Relation to their Study Habits and Socio- Economic Status: A Descriptive Survey Study

Sahidul Alamα & Dr. Md Rofikul Islamσ

____________________________________________

ABSTRACT

The appraisal of academic performance has been a regular process in the educational field for a long time. The aim of education is to bring the all-round development of an individual by imparting knowledge, skill and imbibing values in them. But with the passage of time, the aim of formal education is being changed from all-round development of an individual to solely the academic success of the students which narrows down the broader meaning and aim of education. The contemporary study was carried out to examine the association between the academic achievement of secondary students with their study habits and socio-economic status. The researchers took 250 students, selected from different secondary schools of Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh as the sample of the study by using simple random sampling technique. Study Habits Scale (2015) developed by Rani and Jaidka and Socio-economic Status Scale developed and standardized by Kalia and Sahu (2012), as instruments were administered to collect the data. The researchers found that academic achievement, study habits and socio-economic status were correlated with each other. The study revealed that no critical statistical difference exists in scholastic achievement, study habits and socio-economic status among the secondary students on the grounds of gender and locality but the significant difference exists among the secondary students in academic achievement, study habits and socio-economic status on the grounds of their school types which means the significant difference between govt. and private schools. The study also revealed that there was a significant main and interaction effect of study habits and socio-economic status on academic achievement. It further showed that study habits and socio-economic status were significant predictors of academic achievement of the secondary students.

Keywords: academic performance, secondary students, study habits, socio-economic status.

Author α: Research Scholar, Dept. of Education, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P-202002

σ: Asst. Professor (M. Ed.), Education College, Domkal, Murshidabad, W.B, India-742406

  1. INTRODUCTION

In the post-modern era of science and technology, society has become extremely competitive throughout the whole world, everyone is competing with others in achieving their life goals in society. Among dissimilar fields of competition, academic pursuit appears as the most important and relevant faces of one’s life. An individual makes every possible effort to do his best in academics. The aim of true education is to bring the all-round development of an individual by conveying knowledge and skill and imbibing values in them. But the aim of formal education is being changed with changing time from all-round development of an individual to exclusively the academic performance or success of the learners which restricts the wider meaning of education. It is the requirements of the time because in the competitive modern society everybody wishes academic brilliance i.e. good academic achievement or performance. Eysenck and Arnold, in the Encyclopaedia of Psychology (1972), defined  academic performance as, ‘General term for the successful attainment of a goal requiring certain effort’.

Academic achievement or performance is a multidimensional and multifaceted phenomenon also it is complex behaviour. Researches throughout the world have regularly shown that academic accomplishment is not a result of any single factor; rather it is the product of the interaction of a large number of factors. There are a countless number of factors which affect the academic accomplishment of the students viz. heredity, intelligence, motivation, home environment, school environment,  interests, attitude, aptitudes, socio-economic status of the parents, and so on so forth. The above-mentioned factors and other similar mechanisms might play a pivotal role in determining one’s achievement in academic performance.

It could be expressed that the factors that impact the scholastic performance of students overall fall in the accompanying four classes featured as Associated to Student, Associated to Teacher, Associated to School, and Associated to Home. Firstly, Associated to Students: anxiety, intelligence, interest, attitude, achievement motivation, emotional maturity, aptitude, study habits, and language skills etc. come under this domain. Secondly, Associated to Teacher: method of teaching, teaching skills, classroom interaction, teacher motivation, teaching experience, home-work, and reinforcement etc. Thirdly, Associated to School: this domain includes types and location of the school, school climate, the medium of instruction. Lastly, Associated to Home: home atmosphere, socio-economic status, family size,  religion, and cultural effect etc comes under this domain. This study will address the enhancing importance of the student’s academic performance measured by the annual scores, through examining the study habits and socio-economic status of the students in its relation. So, a question arises in mind whether these factors are associated with academic performance or achievement or not and if associated then up to what extent? The present study is an effort to search the answers to these questions.

  1. STUDY HABITS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Often, performance is measured by how well or poorly something is finished. It holds great significance to society because it is the sole basis of measuring learners’ output. In educational parlance, performance demonstrates through scholastic success, which is the outflow of a student’s study propensity and fortified through education. Great study habits are similarly significant and supportive in the scholarly field as well as in picking a future profession. The interrelationship of the scholarly accomplishment or success and study propensity for the students can’t be disregarded on the grounds that to an enormous degree it shapes an individual predetermination. The basic conviction wins in the public arena is that students with great study habits are probably going to sparkle than those with pitiable study habits. ‘Study habit means the habit that an individual might have formed with respect to his learning activities’ (Nagaraju, 2004, p.16).

  1. ACCORDING TO CREDE AND KUNCEL (2008),

‘Study habits are studied routines, including but not restricted to, the frequency of studying sessions, review of the material, self-testing, rehearsal of learned material, and studying in a conducive environment’.

Studies revealed that the Study Habits of the students play a key role in the academic achievement of students.

  1. PREVIOUS STUDIES RELATED TO STUDY HABIT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Chamundeswari and Kumari (2014) and Ayodele and Adebiyi (2013), in their study, found a positive huge connection between study habits and scholarly success or accomplishment. Mashayekhi et al. (2014) conducted a study on 220 graduate-level students of Islamic Azad College Jiroft Branch and found that 89% of students have moderately alluring study habits, and furthermore found that study habits and scholastic accomplishment were positively correlated. The researchers selected the sample randomly and collected data from both the College of Agriculture and Humanities. Anwar (2013) also found that students with poor and good study habits differed significantly in their academic performance, students with good study habits performed well in their academics and vice-versa. In (2012), Sharma while studying the study habit and academic achievement of 250 students of 9th-grade high school students found that good study habits very often lead to a higher level of academic achievement. The study also showed that girls had a bitter study habits in comparison to boys. Pillai (2012) in his study found a significant difference in study habits between male and female students. Bhan and Gupta (2010) in their research on study habits and academic performance found no significant effect of study habit on the academic performance of students in relation to the sexual role. Sarwar et al. (2009) in their study found that higher achievers had better study habits than the lower achievers. Prema (2007) while studying the relationship between study habits and academic success found that girls had better study habits and performed well than the boys in their academic performance. The study also highlighted that significant difference among the students of Govt., Govt. Aided and Private schools. Lastly, it also revealed a significant positive relationship between study habits and academic achievement. The researchers selected a sample of 450 senior secondary students from different administration schools. Sud and Sujata (2006) after investigation, concluded by saying that girls were better in their Study Habits than the boys. Sirohi (2004) found that poor study habits of the students were one of the main reasons for low or under-achievement. Thakkar (2003) concluded that a significant difference exists between low and high achiever rural students in their study habits. Baland (1999) in his study found that study habits of males were bitter than females students. It also revealed that the study habits of urban males were significantly lower than that of urban females.

V.    SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

The word socio-economic status is a composite term comprising two measurements dimensions i.e. societal status and economic status. The socio-economic status of an individual or family can be estimated based on education, salary, profession, wellbeing and material had, and so forth in contrast with others in the public arena. Socio-economic status is a proportion of an individual or family’s relative economic and social positioning in the general public and it is frequently made out of the parents’ education level, parent’s occupation, family income, community network, and size of the family.

‘Socio-economic status is the position of an individual or group on the socio-economic scale, which is informed by a combination or interaction of social and economic factors, such as income, amount and type of education, kind of prestige and occupation, place of residence and in some society’s even ethnic origin and religious background’ The American Psychological Association (APA) in Dictionary of Psychology (2007).

So, Socio-economic status not only helps a pupil in getting higher education but it also helps in choosing a future career. In Indian society, there is a common saying that higher the socio- economic background better the educational facilities are available together with more intellectual stimulation. The socio-economic background looks to influence a student’s attitudes, motivation, values, etc. and thus, his academic achievement or accomplishment.

  1. PREVIOUS STUDIES RELATED TO SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

Plenty of studies have been finished by the researchers before to look at the problems and investigate socio-economic status as a contributing element in scholastic performance or achievement and their examination indicated an alternate result. Faaz and Khan (2017) directed an investigation to know the connection between the socio-economic status of upper primary students with their scholarly or academic performance and found that socio-economic status and scholastic success of the students had a positive critical relationship. Sanjurjo, Blanco and Fernández- Costales (2017) found that socio-economic status adversely influences lower socio-economic status foundation students in their learning of CLIL while concentrating the impact of socio-economic status on the scholarly accomplishment of the students and Gabriel et al. (2016) likewise found an insignificant relationship or relationship between scholastic achievement of the students and their parent's occupation while researching the effect of parental socio-economic status on the scholarly accomplishment or performance of secondary students. Farid et al. (2016) in their investigation saw that socio-economic status significantly affected student’s academic performance. Gul and Rehman (2014) in their study saw that socio-economic status had a critical and positive effect on the scholastic performance of the students. It additionally uncovered that high socio-economic status students perform well in their academics. Zaki et al. (2014) after their investigation closed by saying that the scholastic performance of students has a hugely positive association with their parent's socio-economic status. Suleman et al. (2013) in their study reasoned that parent's Socio-economic status i.e., parent's education, occupation and salary influence secondary students’ academic performance. Sirin (2005) while leading a meta-diagnostic research study of the exploration articles distributed in a different noted scholastic diary in the middle of 1990-2000 to survey the connection between socio-economic status and scholarly achievement found a moderate to solid degree relationship between socio-economic status and academic achievement of the students.

  1. JUSTIFICATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROBLEM

The educational career of each and every student is very often full of tests and examinations thoroughly. It is an acknowledged fact that school days are more challenging than any other level of education for the students to do well in academics because at this level they have encountered many problems. Students to perform well need proper learning facilities, effective study habits and sound socio-economic family background which very often leads to productive learning. Forecasting or predicting academic success of the students is one of the most essential tasks in modern-day education. Educationists, acade- micians, researchers, guidance workers and counsellors always tried to predict and maximize academic achievement of the students through studying students achievement with certain other psycho-social variables,  and researchers and educationists have made many attempts in this direction e.g., use of intelligence test scores as a predictor of academic achievement. But, today, there is a growing realization among the educationists that other psychological, sociological, cognitive, non-cognitive, and environmental factors must be considered in order to maximize the student’s performance and to lessen the error in bringing good academic achievement.

In this way, in the present study investigators make an endeavour to trace the impact of study habits and socio-economic status on the academic or scholastic achievement of secondary students. An examination of the related literature further uncovers that a countable number of studies had been directed in India on U.P. Board students identified with the dimensions attempted in the present study i.e., study habits, and socio-economic status. Be that as it may, no researcher has concentrated on the connection between scholastic achievement and the previously mentioned factors. Likewise, nobody has endeavoured to utilize these factors as conceivable prescient files of academic performance at the secondary stage. The present study is, along these lines, defended in light of the fact that it is the arrangement of its sort, intended to investigate the relationship of two predictors i.e., study habits and socio-economic status with one criterion i.e., academic achievement which may fundamentally add to the forecast of the scholastic accomplishment of the secondary students. The present study will be advantageous for instructors as a ruler and educators specifically in light of the fact that the information on the relationship of these variables understudy will empower the teachers and instructors to design their instructive program remembering the connection of these above-said factors. The present study will give a piece of knowledge to the guardians to manage their children and youngsters with the goal that they will have the option to build up a comprehension of the significance of study habits and socio-economic status. This understanding will likewise help the teachers to make a progressive, friendly, agreeable, warm and loyal, passionate and favourable atmosphere in instilling great study habits at school and appropriate direction and counselling might be given to the children accordingly. In addition, based on the findings of the study, educators may assist the students in modifying their conduct as to study habits and socio-economic status. Educational admini- strators and planners, curriculum organizers, guidance workers and counsellors may likewise be profited by the consequences of this study. The results yielded by this work might be of incredible practical use with the end goal of the preparation of the educational program of the teachers or instructors. Results of the study might be used at the hour of confirmation of the students in different scholarly and proficient courses of study. Educationists may likewise find new difficulties or new spaces for further investigation. The present study is along these lines imagined serving a multidimensional cause in the ever-growing field of education.

  1.  RESEARCH QUESTIONS
  1. Does study habits affect the academic performance of secondary students?
  2. Whether secondary students differ in their study habits?
  3. Does socio-economic status affect the academic achievement of secondary students?
  4. Whether secondary students differ in their socio-economic status?
  5. Whether secondary students differ in their academic performance on the grounds of gender, locality, and types of school?
  6. Whether study habits and socio-economic status have a combined or interaction effect on the academic achievement of the secondary students?
  7. So, as to respond to the above research questions, the accompanying objectives have been formulated in reachable terms.
  1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
  1. To study the inter-relationship of academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status of the secondary students.
  2. To study the combined impact of study habits and socio-economic status on the academic performance of the secondary students.
  3. To study the difference in academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status of the secondary students on the grounds of their sexual orientation, residential locality, and school type.
  4. To study the main and interactional effect of study habits and socio-economic status on the academic performance of the secondary students.

  1. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY

The researchers formulate null hypotheses in the present study for testing purposes. They are as:

H0-1: There is no noteworthy relationship among academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status of the secondary students.

H0-2: There is no noteworthy combined impact of study habits and socio-economic status on the academic performance of the secondary students.

H0-3: There is no noteworthy distinction in academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status of the secondary students on the grounds of their sexual orientation, residential area, and school type.

H0-4: There is no main and interactional impact of study habits and socio-economic status on the academic performance of the secondary students.

X.   METHOD

The researcher adopted a descriptive research design for the present study and collected data from 250 secondary school students of Aligarh District by applying a simple random sampling technique.

  1. PARTICIPANTS

In the present study, samples include 125 boys and 125 girls of class IX of Aligarh district.

Research Variables

The present research is a correlational study that thought about the criteria of descriptive research and depends on two factors to be namely autonomous variables (study habits and socio-economic status) and the dependent variable (academic performance).

  1. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

Following are research tools:

i) Study Habits Inventory

For collecting information regarding student’s study habits, the researchers used the 1Study Habits Scale (2015) developed by Rani and Jaidka. The scale consists of 46 items having the reliability of 0.872 by the split-half method.

ii) Socio-economic Status Scale

Socio-economic Status Scale developed and standardized by Kalia and Sahu (2012). It has five dimensions consisting of 40 items. The content validity was measured by the experts and criterion validity was measured by correlating SES scale developed by Singh, Sharma and Kumar (2006) and the value was 0.86 which is very highly significant. Reliability of the scale was measured with the help of Split half and Test-retest method and the values are 0.68 and 0.86 respectively.

iii) Academic Performance

The researchers took the final examination marks of students as academic performance and collected from the schools’ official record book.

Procedure

First of all, the researchers took permission from the school authorities to conduct the research and later participants were informed about the purpose of the study and further their consent was taken. At that point, they were approached to peruse the questionnaire cautiously and select the alternatives which really mirrors their frame of mind. The two instruments i.e., Study Habits Scale (SHS) and Socio-economic status (SES) scale were controlled so as to quantify the impact of study habits and socio-economic status separately on a students’ academic achievement. The level of a students’ academic performance was measured by their obtained annual marks in the last year final examination.

  1. STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES

The researchers used a t-test, Pearson’s product-moment correlation, factorial ANOVA, Multiple Regression Analysis for testing the hypotheses and analyzing the data.

Normality of the Data

No.

Mean

S.D.

Kolmogorov-Smirnova

Shapiro-Wilk

Statistic

df

Sig.

Statistic

df

Sig.

SH

 250

82.30

28.111

.161

250

.000**

.922

250

.000**

SES

250

60.28

12.413

.118

250

.000**

.953

250

.000**

AP

250

72.04

12.191

.070

250

.005*

.979

250

.001**

** Significant at 0.01 level.

* Significant at 0.05 level.

The perusal of the above table shows that the data of study habits, socio-economic status, and academic performance are normally distributed. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test results also highlight that the distributions are significant at both 0.05 and 0.01 levels of confidence. Following figures further clearly depicts the distributional pattern of the above-said variables.

Fig-1                                Fig-2                                Fig-3

Study Habits,  SES and  Academic Performance

  1.    ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE STUDY

Analysis and interpretation is the most significant undertaking of any research work. As it were, analysis and interpretation of data is the spirit of any research study. The analysis procedure incorporates information or data gathering, sorting out, organizing and outlining to get the objectives and to test the null hypotheses of the study. In the present study, data has been analysed and interpreted to scrutinize the probable effect of study habits and socio-economic status (individually or combinedly) of the secondary students on their academic performance in relation to their gender, locality and types of school. The researcher also tried to know the difference in academic performance or achievement, study habits and socio-economic status of secondary students in relation to their sexual characteristics, area of living and types of school. For analysing the data, the researchers fit the raw scores in MS Excel and then, export the raw data into the IBM SPSS- 20.0 software. (IBM Statistical Package for Social Science).

XV.   CORRELATIONAL STUDY

In order to study the interrelationship among academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status of secondary students, the researchers applied Pearson’s product-moment coefficient of correlation which gives the results as shown in the following table:

Variables

AP

SH

SES

Academic Performance

(AP)

Pearson Correlation

1

.600**

.555**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

.000

N

250

250

Study Habits

(SH)

Pearson Correlation

 1

.445**

Sig. (2-tailed)

.000

N

250

                                                                                                                        ** Significant at 0.01 level.

Interpretation and Discussion: The perusal of the above table shows that academic performance and study habits are significantly positively correlated (P=.000<0.1) with each other and the degree of correlation (r=.600) is moderately high. Similarly, Academic performance and socio-economic status also positively correlated (r=.555). The table further depicts the significant positive inter-correlation between study habits and socio-economic status (r=.445).

  1. DIFFERENTIAL STUDY

Under this headings, the researchers want to know is there any significant difference in academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status of the secondary students in the ground of their sexual characteristics, area of living and types of their school. They are as under: 

i) Comparison of Academic Performance of Secondary Students on the grounds of Gender, Locality and type of Schools

GENDER-WISE

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Male

125

248

72.48

13.456

.570

.569NS

Female

125

71.60

10.816

LOCALITY BASIS

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Rural

125

248

71.15

11.692

-1.152

.250NS

Urban

125

72.93

12.655

TYPE OF SCHOOLS BASIS

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Govt.

125

248

67.22

10.814

-6.788

.000**

Private

125

76.86

11.608

NS-Not Significant, * Significant at 0.05 level, ** Significant at 0.01 level.

The perusal of the above table shows that there is no significant difference in academic performance between male-female, and rural-urban students while a significant difference exists between govt. and private school students as the P=.000<0.05 which further reject the null hypothesis.

ii) Comparison of Study Habits of Secondary Students on the grounds of Gender, Locality and type of Schools.

GENDER-WISE

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Male

125

248

82.54

27.246

.139

.899NS

Female

125

82.05

29.057

LOCALITY BASIS

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Rural

125

248

83.22

28.786

.517

.606NS

Urban

125

81.38

27.504

TYPE OF SCHOOLS BASIS

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Govt.

125

248

74.53

25.807

-4.538

.000**

Private

125

90.06

28.269

                                                                         NS-Not Significant, * Significant at 0.05 level, ** Significant at 0.01 level.

From the perusal of the above table, it has been found that there is no statistically significant difference in study habits between male and female, and rural and urban secondary students whereas significant difference exists between govt. and private secondary students.

iii) Comparison of Socio-economic status of Secondary Students on the grounds of Gender, Locality and type of Schools

GENDER-WISE

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Male

125

248

61.46

11.081

1.502

.134NS

Female

125

59.10

13.558

LOCALITY BASIS

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Rural

125

248

59.90

12.393

-.488

.626NS

Urban

125

60.66

12.471

TYPE OF SCHOOLS BASIS

Variables

NO.

df

Mean

S.D

t-value

Sig.

Govt.

125

248

55.56

13.126

-6.490

.000**

Private

125

65.00

9.603

NS-Not Significant, * Significant at 0.05 level, ** Significant at 0.01 level.

From the perusal of the above table, it has been found that no significant difference exists between male and female, and rural and urban secondary students in their study habits whereas a significant difference exists between govt. and private school students.

Main and Interaction Effect of Study Habits and Socio-economic Status on Academic Performance

Source

Type I Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Corrected Model

36423.933a

233

156.326

4.300

.001**

Intercept

1297440.400

1

1297440.400

35688.905

.000**

SH

21965.485

85

258.417

7.108

.000**

SES

5141.511

47

109.394

3.009

.010**

SH * SES

9316.938

101

92.247

2.537

.019*

Error

581.667

16

36.354

Total

1334446.000

250

Corrected Total

37005.600

249

The perusal of the above table shows that the main effect of study habits (F=7.108, P=.000) is significant at 0.01 level whereas the main effect of socio-economic status (F=3.009, P=.010) is significant at the 0.01 level. The interaction effect of study habits and socio-economic status is (F=2.537, P= .019<0.05) also significant at 0.05 level of confidence.

  1. PREDICTIVE STUDY

Here, the researchers applied multiple regression analysis to know the individual and combined effect of study habits and socio-economic status in predicting academic performance of secondary students.

Model Summary

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

.681

.464

.459

8.965

From the above table it is found that R= 0.681; R2 = 0.464; and the adjusted R2 = 0.459.  The regression coefficient (R) = 0.681 highlights that significant moderate positive relation exists between independent variables (study habits and socio-economic status) and dependent variables (academic performance). The coefficient of determination (R2) of .464 indicates that 46.4% of the observed variability is explained by the independent variables and 54.6 % unexplained variability caused by some other extraneous variables. This further leads to the verification of the regression fit as stated in the ANOVA table.

ANOVA

  Model

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

Regression

17154.195

2

8577.098

106.720

.000**

Residual

19851.405

247

80.370

Total

37005.600

249

NS-Not Significant, * Significant at 0.05 level, ** Significant at 0.01 level.

From the above ANOVA table, it is found that the ‘F’ value=106.720; P=0.000<.001 which is statistically significant at .01% level which reveals that the regression model is statistically significant, valid and fit, and could be used to predict academic performance of secondary students. This further highlights each and every individual factor’s contribution in predicting academic performance of the secondary students in the following coefficient table:

Coefficient of the sample

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t-value

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

(Constant)

35.054

2.858

12.264

.000**

SH

.191

.023

.440

8.451

.000**

SES

.353

.051

.360

6.910

.000**

                                                                               NS-Not Significant, * Significant at 0.05 level, ** Significant at 0.01 level.

From the above table, it is found that the study habits (SH) (t = 8.451, P = 0.000<.001), and socio-economic status (SES) (t = 6.910, P = 0.000<.001) are statistically significant at .01% level and highlights that study habits (beta-44 %) and socio-economic status (beta-36) have significant contribution in academic performance and predict achievement by study habits and socio-economic status respectively. The beta value of study habits (.44) would mean that one unit increase in study habits, academic performance would increase by 0.44. Similarly, one unit beta increase of socio-economic status (beta-.36) would mean .36 unit increase of academic performance.

  1. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY

The researchers found that academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status were correlated with each other. The study revealed that no significant difference exists in academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status among the secondary students on the ground of gender and locality but the significant difference exists among the secondary students in academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status on the grounds of their school types which means the significant difference between govt. and private schools. The study also revealed that there was a significant main and interaction effect of study habits and socio-economic status on academic performance or achievement. It further showed that study habits and socio-economic status were significant predictors of academic performance of the secondary students.

  1. DISCUSSION

After analyzing the data, the researchers found that academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status were correlated with each other. Adeyemi (2014), Chamundeswari and Kumari al. (2014), Mashayekhi et al. (2014), Anwar (2013), Sharma (2012), and Sarwar et al. (2009) in their study found a positive significant relationship between study habits and academic achievement whereas Faaz and Khan (2017), Farid et al. (2016), Gul and Rehman (2014), Zaki et al. (2014), Suleman et al. (2013), and Sirin (2005) in their study found that socio-economic status and academic performance of the students had positive significant correlation.

  1. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY

The findings of the present study could help psychologists, educationists and counsellors to better comprehend educational issues and problems and further to assist students with their academic problems. Now, coming to the implications of study habits and on academic performance, we can suggest some individual & Group guidance measures which could be used to improve the study habits and further lead the academic performance of the students and minimize the rate of underachievers and failures.

Now, coming to the implications of socio-economic status on academic performance/achievement of the students as it is positively correlated with academic performance we could bring good performance from the students by empowering their social and economic status which directly correlated with family expenditure in the education of the child. Summarize, the present research presents a predictive instrument of academic performance that can be utilized by parents, teachers, administrators and guidance personnel for substantially enhancing the academic performance of students by empowering the socio-economically backward classes who often have low study habits as compared to higher classes students, especially for those studying in senior secondary schools.

XX.   SUGGESTIONS AND DELIMITATIONS

The present research study was conducted on secondary students and a similar study can be carried out in different settings (e.g., school or college students.). The study has identified affirmative effects of study habits and socio-economic status on academic performance or achievement of the secondary students. Though the researchers tried to know and measure is there any difference among the secondary students in their academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status on the grounds of gender, living locality and type of schools and found a significant difference between govt. and private schools students in their academic performance, study habits and socio-economic status background. Therefore, action should be taken to minimize the gap between govt. and private schools in the above dimensions.  

The study had certain delimitations, they were as:

  • The study was delimited to only one district i.e., Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, India.
  • This study only considered academic performance as the dependent variable of the study.
  • Study habits and socio-economic status were predictors of this study.
  • The study was exclusively focused on Secondary Students.

  1. CONCLUSION

Since, Academic performance or achievement of the students found correlated with study habits and socio-economic status of the students, it is very much essential for the institutions that they should play an important role in encouraging and promoting good study habits and positive learning attitudes among students as we all know that study habits are learnable and teachable and hence, institutions should take innovative measures to improve the study habits of students. Besides study habits, socio-economic status was a good predictor and correlated with academic achievement. Modern-day, educating a child is a good function for school with lots of expenditure. So, it is the responsibility of the planners, administrators and govt. authorities to make provisions, policies and programs for the betterment of the downtrodden and socio-economically weaker sections which could make them able to send their child in a good school.

REFERENCES

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  2. Adeyemi, A.M. (2014). Personal factors as predictors of students’ academic achievement in colleges of education in South-Western Nigeria. Educational Research and Reviews, Vol-IX, No-1, pp. 97-109.
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  10. Sanjurjo, F; Blanco, F and Fernández-Costales (2017). Assessing the influence of socio- economic status on students’ performance in Content and Language Integrated Learning. System, 73 pp. 16–26.https://doi.org/10. 1016/j.system.2017.09.001
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  14. Faaz, M. and Khan, Z.N. (2017). A Study of Academic Achievement of Upper Primary School students in Relation to their Socio-economic Status. Asian Journals of Research in Social Science and Humanities, Vol. VII, No. 6,  pp. 121-127.
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