Limiting Essential Amino Acid as Influenced by Pyrites Application in Agaricus Bisporus (Button Mushroom)

London Journal of Research in Science: Natural and Formal
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Dr. Monal Singh , NA
Classification: NA
Keywords: Pyrites, Agaricus bisporus, Limiting essential amino acid.
Language: English

Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom) is the most popular variety grown and consumed the world over. In India production is produced throughout year due to technology development. Button mushroom is rich in amino acid. When an essential amino acid is not provided in adequate amounts in diet protein synthesis is limited to the rate at which essential amino acid is available. Essential amino acid than become limiting amino acids. In present study A. bisporus studied for limiting essential amino acid influenced by pyrites treatment. Best result were obtained by pyrites treatment.

               

Limiting Essential Amino Acid as Influenced by Pyrites Application in Agaricus Bisporus (Button Mushroom).

Monal Singh

____________________________________________

ABSTRACT

Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom) is the most popular variety grown and consumed the world over. In India production is produced throughout year due to technology development. Button mushroom is rich in amino acid. When an essential amino acid is not provided in adequate amounts in diet protein synthesis is limited to the rate at which essential amino acid is available. Essential amino acid than become limiting amino acids. In present study A. bisporus studied for limiting essential amino acid influenced by pyrites treatment. Best result were obtained by pyrites treatment.

Keyworld: pyrites, agaricus bisporus, limiting essential amino acid.

Author: PPN (PG) College, Kanpur, India (Affiliated to CSJM University, Kanpur).

  1. INTRODUCTION

Mushroom is a fungi producing a fleshy fruiting body with lack of chlorophyll. The most popular mushroom is white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) consumed all over world. Mushroom consumed by those practicing folk medicine are known as medicinal mushroom(1). Fresh mushrooms are a healthy addition to our plate provide many same nutritional benefits as vegetables, found in meat, beans & grains.

The facts:-

  • low in calories
  • very low in sodium
  • fat free(2) 
  • cholesterol free

        

Essential amino acid (Building block of protein) or Indispensible amino acid : is an amino acid cannot be synthesized by organism. Nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, lysine and histdine(3, 4). Limiting Essential amino acid found in smallest quantity in foodstuff have a limiting amino acid. Amino acids like lysine(Lys), threonine(Thr), methionine(Met) and tryptophan(Trp) are limiting amino acids.

The table list the WHO and united states recommended daily amounts currently in use for essential amino acids in adult humans(5,6).

Amino acid

WHO mg/kg body weight

WHO mg/70 kg

USmg/kg body weight

Histidine

10

700

14

Isoleucine

20

1400

19

Leucine

39

2730

42

Lysine

30

2100

38

Methionine,cystiene

10.4 + 4.1

=15 (total)

1050 (total)

19 (total)

Phenyl alanine, Tyrosine

25 (total)

1750 (total)

33 (total)

Threonine

15

1050

20

Tryptophan

4

280

5

Valine

26

1820

24

Foodstuffs that lack essential amino acids are a poor sources of protein equivalents as the body tends to deaminate the amino acids obtained converting proteins into fats and carbohydrates. Therefore a balance of essential amino acid is necessary for a high degree of net protein utilization, which is the mass ratio of amino acids converted to protein to amino acid supplied(7).

Protein sources

Limiting Amino Acids

Wheat

lysine

Rice

lysine

Legumes

tryptophan

Maize

lysine and tryptophan

Pulses

methionine (or cystiene)

Complete proteins contain a balanced set of essential amino acids for humans. Animal sources such as meat, poultry eggs, fish, milk and cheese provide all of the essential amino acid(8). Essential amino acid deficiency should be distinguished from protein energy malnutrition. Mushroom provide a high protein diet recommended for excellent source of essential amino acid.

Essential amino acids of Agaricus bisporus g/100g protein(12).

Amino acid

  1. bisporus

Isoleucine

1.5

Leucine

7.5

Methionine

0.9

Threonine

5.35

Tryptophan

2.0

Valine

2.5

Lysine

9.1

Histidine

2.7

  1. MATERIALS & METHODS

Amino acids, specially limiting essential amino acids were analysed in the Plant Pathology, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, from the sample obtained and experiment was conducted.

  • Variety : Agaricus bisporus.
  • Treatments:  Pyrite application (0.2%) + substrate
  • Replication:  Three
  • Experimental design: Completely randomized design
  • Substrate:  Wheat straw.
  • Compost was prepared by application of pyrites till 28th day and ready for bedding.
  • First sampling was done after 25th days from days of spawning second & third sampling were taken after 8th days intervals.

2.1 Composition of pyrites

Constituent

% composition

Constituent

% composition

Total sulphate

24

Iron

22

Mgo

0.6

Carbon

3

Cao

0.1

Zinc

0.02

Alumina

8

Copper

0.05

Silica

40

Manganese

0.01

2.2  Determination of Nutritive Value Parameter 

Limiting essential Amino acid

  • Methionine: Calorimetrically in a glysine - nitroprusside - phosphoric acid system(9)
  • Lysine: Estimated on a spectronic 20 spectrophotometer at 540 mu(10).
  • Tryptophan: Estimated by the method of spices & chambers(11).
  1. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS 

Limiting essential amino acid was analysed by using the pyrite treatment as :

Limiting Essential Amino Acids

Treatment

Variety

Methionine

1.79

0.99

Lysine

7.74

7.36

Tryptophan

3.52

4.21

  1. CONCLUSION

The limiting essential amino acid composition of lysine shown higher value in A. bisporus than tryptophan and shows lowest value of methionine content. Treatment of pyrite application shows best result & excelled nutritive value parameters of essential amino acid.

Study suggest that pyrite might used for commercial production of mushroom to improve the lack of amino acid in Indian folklore and meet out malnutrition.

REFERENCE  

  1. Boa E. Food and agriculture organization of united nations ISBN, 978-92-5-105157-3 (2004).
  2. Mushroom fulfill leading recommendation for healthy diet from dietary guidelines for Americans (2015).
  3. Young VR. Adult amino acid requirements : J. Nutr. 124 (8 suppl) : 1517S-1523S (1994).
  4. Dietary referenes intakes : The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements Archieved 05 July 2014 at the way back Machine. Institute of Medicine's Food & Nutrition Board : usda - Gov.
  5. FAO/WHO/UNU Protein and Amino acid requirement in Human nutrition WHO Press : Page 150(2007).
  6. Institute of Medicine Protein and Amino acids. The National Academies Press PP : 589-768 (2002).
  7. Mc Glivery Robert W. Biochemistry a Functional Approach  chapter 41 esp page 787 (1979).
  8. "Nutrition for Everyone : Basics : Protein" centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 15 May (2008).
  9. Millard et al. Colorimetric determination of methionine in proteins & foods J. Bio. Chem. 166 : 313-320 (1946).
  10. Block et al. Paper electrophoresis (2nd ed.) Academic Press PP 1-576 (1958).
  11. Spices & chambers chemical determination of tryptophan in protein. Analyt. chem. 21 : 1249 (1949).
  12. Chang, Shu-Ting et al. : 1993 Edible mushroom and their cultivation30. (1993).



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