Limiting Essential Amino Acid as Influenced by Pyrites Application in Agaricus Bisporus (Button Mushroom).
Agaricus bisporus (button mushroom) is the most popular variety grown and consumed the world over. In India production is produced throughout year due to technology development. Button mushroom is rich in amino acid. When an essential amino acid is not provided in adequate amounts in diet protein synthesis is limited to the rate at which essential amino acid is available. Essential amino acid than become limiting amino acids. In present study A. bisporus studied for limiting essential amino acid influenced by pyrites treatment. Best result were obtained by pyrites treatment.
Keyworld: pyrites, agaricus bisporus, limiting essential amino acid.
Author: PPN (PG) College, Kanpur, India (Affiliated to CSJM University, Kanpur).
Mushroom is a fungi producing a fleshy fruiting body with lack of chlorophyll. The most popular mushroom is white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) consumed all over world. Mushroom consumed by those practicing folk medicine are known as medicinal mushroom(1). Fresh mushrooms are a healthy addition to our plate provide many same nutritional benefits as vegetables, found in meat, beans & grains.
- low in calories
- very low in sodium
- fat free(2)
- cholesterol free
Essential amino acid (Building block of protein) or Indispensible amino acid : is an amino acid cannot be synthesized by organism. Nine amino acids humans cannot synthesize are phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, methionine, leucine, lysine and histdine(3, 4). Limiting Essential amino acid found in smallest quantity in foodstuff have a limiting amino acid. Amino acids like lysine(Lys), threonine(Thr), methionine(Met) and tryptophan(Trp) are limiting amino acids.
The table list the WHO and united states recommended daily amounts currently in use for essential amino acids in adult humans(5,6).
WHO mg/kg body weight
WHO mg/70 kg
USmg/kg body weight
10.4 + 4.1
Phenyl alanine, Tyrosine
Foodstuffs that lack essential amino acids are a poor sources of protein equivalents as the body tends to deaminate the amino acids obtained converting proteins into fats and carbohydrates. Therefore a balance of essential amino acid is necessary for a high degree of net protein utilization, which is the mass ratio of amino acids converted to protein to amino acid supplied(7).
Limiting Amino Acids
lysine and tryptophan
methionine (or cystiene)
Complete proteins contain a balanced set of essential amino acids for humans. Animal sources such as meat, poultry eggs, fish, milk and cheese provide all of the essential amino acid(8). Essential amino acid deficiency should be distinguished from protein energy malnutrition. Mushroom provide a high protein diet recommended for excellent source of essential amino acid.
Essential amino acids of Agaricus bisporus g/100g protein(12).
- MATERIALS & METHODS
Amino acids, specially limiting essential amino acids were analysed in the Plant Pathology, C.S. Azad University of Agriculture & Technology, Kanpur, from the sample obtained and experiment was conducted.
- Variety : Agaricus bisporus.
- Treatments: Pyrite application (0.2%) + substrate
- Replication: Three
- Experimental design: Completely randomized design
- Substrate: Wheat straw.
- Compost was prepared by application of pyrites till 28th day and ready for bedding.
- First sampling was done after 25th days from days of spawning second & third sampling were taken after 8th days intervals.
2.1 Composition of pyrites
2.2 Determination of Nutritive Value Parameter
Limiting essential Amino acid
- Methionine: Calorimetrically in a glysine - nitroprusside - phosphoric acid system(9)
- Lysine: Estimated on a spectronic 20 spectrophotometer at 540 mu(10).
- Tryptophan: Estimated by the method of spices & chambers(11).
- RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS
Limiting essential amino acid was analysed by using the pyrite treatment as :
Limiting Essential Amino Acids
The limiting essential amino acid composition of lysine shown higher value in A. bisporus than tryptophan and shows lowest value of methionine content. Treatment of pyrite application shows best result & excelled nutritive value parameters of essential amino acid.
Study suggest that pyrite might used for commercial production of mushroom to improve the lack of amino acid in Indian folklore and meet out malnutrition.
- Boa E. Food and agriculture organization of united nations ISBN, 978-92-5-105157-3 (2004).
- Mushroom fulfill leading recommendation for healthy diet from dietary guidelines for Americans (2015).
- Young VR. Adult amino acid requirements : J. Nutr. 124 (8 suppl) : 1517S-1523S (1994).
- Dietary referenes intakes : The Essential Guide to Nutrient Requirements Archieved 05 July 2014 at the way back Machine. Institute of Medicine's Food & Nutrition Board : usda - Gov.
- FAO/WHO/UNU Protein and Amino acid requirement in Human nutrition WHO Press : Page 150(2007).
- Institute of Medicine Protein and Amino acids. The National Academies Press PP : 589-768 (2002).
- Mc Glivery Robert W. Biochemistry a Functional Approach chapter 41 esp page 787 (1979).
- "Nutrition for Everyone : Basics : Protein" centers for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 15 May (2008).
- Millard et al. Colorimetric determination of methionine in proteins & foods J. Bio. Chem. 166 : 313-320 (1946).
- Block et al. Paper electrophoresis (2nd ed.) Academic Press PP 1-576 (1958).
- Spices & chambers chemical determination of tryptophan in protein. Analyt. chem. 21 : 1249 (1949).
- Chang, Shu-Ting et al. : 1993 Edible mushroom and their cultivation30. (1993).