South Sudan is a country facing food insecurity and famine. The overall objective is therefore to guarantee food security for all. This research is to assess the extent to which achievement of food security and federalism have connection. Food security is when all people, at all times have access to food for an active life and federalism is where several states form unity but are independent in internal affairs. The research uses reviewed data and so it is qualitative. With reference to food insecurity the root causes are natural and man-made. Natural causes include drought and man-made causes an armed conflict and limited budgetary allocation to the agricultural sector. South Sudan is endowed with abundant natural resources for sustainable agricultural development. However, the centralized system has not been helpful in the effort to achieve food security. In contrast, federalism is seen as a vehicle of development and federalism is a popular demand of the people of South Sudan. Nevertheless, the Transitional Constitution 2011 does not highlight federalism as a system of governance. The revitalized agreement, in contrast, recognizes federalism as the demand of the people. The result of the research shows that federalism is a suitable system of governance for South Sudan. However, the research is not conclusive and so further research is recommended to determine the strength of association between achievement of food security and federalism.