The impact of environmental pollution on public health is currently a major research challenge. This holds true for air pollution, an area where scientific knowledge has advanced significantly in recent times, but also for noise pollution that characterizes the urban spaces in which most of the population is concentrated. In fact, industrial and technological progress has transformed the standard of human life on the Planet. The most diverse motor vehicles invaded the space in which the inhabitants of most cities are born, grow and study. Smoke and noise contaminate the daily lives of people exposing their health novel risks. The population morbidity and mortality increase as consequence of these environmental damages. Scientific studies on the subject have focused on the adult range. As childhood and adolescence are decisive steps for adequate growth and differentiation of the human brain, the impact of air and noise pollution on the health of children and adolescents needs to be better understood. Those studies will provide the fundamental requirements for the adoption of preventive measures necessary for the adequate promotion of the physical, mental and social well-being of the new generations. The focus of this article is on noise pollution during childhood.