The Main Convergences and Divergences of Digital Culture: Literature and Education

London Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences
Volume | Issue | Compilation
Authored by Gibran Banhakeia , Boujamaa EL Kouy
Classification: FOR Code- 160599
Keywords: digital culture, digitalization, literature, education, e- learning.
Language: English

This research aims at analyzing the unsaid issues of Digital culture in terms of education and literature in general and, in particular, it pictures the updated voice of Electronic Literature of 21st century, for as much as it entirely governs the way people communicate, think and even educate themselves, this research would depict such new far-reaching advances of cultural predicaments as to how it is being considered as the model of rejection and acceptance. In a nutshell, this paper is bound to explain the paramount convergences and divergences of Digital Culture. This change, albeit, becomes as the crisis, beneficial and positive side of human intellectuality.


The Main Convergences and Divergences of Digital Culture: Literature and Education

Gibran Banhakeiaα & Boujamaa EL Kouyσ                                                                               



This research aims at analyzing the unsaid issues of Digital culture in terms of education and literature .but , in particular , it would be vital to globally picture the updated voices of Electronic Literature in the  21st century, forasmuch as this paradigm of informational technology governed the way people communicate, think and socially behave, this research would depict such new far-reaching advances of cultural predicaments as to how modernity has been considered both as the model of rejection and acceptance.

Key terms: digital culture, digitalization, literature, e-literature.

Author α σ: Faculty Pluridisciplinary of Nador.


“I love watching the Oscars and seeing everybody saying all that 'it's an honour just to be nominated' rubbish. Then you see their faces when the split screen comes up as the winner is announced - the losers are all smiling through gritted teeth and looking as if  they just swallowed half a pound of soor ploom”

John Niven


Digital culture has been developed into a new structure of similarly living patterns of “Modernizing Technological Minds” by leaders in the first place. Life became a model of internet, nevertheless this mode of living differentiated completely from what we knew as the old traditions or stories of our grandfathers. This change produces several issues that are at the same time the state-of-the-art technology in every country, because the image of Culture changes into another model of Cyberculture, Literature transforms, specifically. Internet leads all the readers of literature into E-books, and the notion of letters restrains amateur readers from cohabiting with the modern world of technology. On the top of what the model of universalization offers to its people like the newly hopeful projects, the concept of “conformity” and “realization” turned Digitalization into a model of adaptation of “what is new” against “what is old” to the extent that everything is roughly harsh to comprehend nowadays. Although, this seems very strange, due to the sociological demands of today, to visualize problems that our world unbearably undergoes, in terms of regarding how globalization governs us mindfully and materially. The modernity of cultural identity and social conformity is in a correct sense against globalization: Digital Culture minimizes the value of national literature since the inclination of technology would put its stored stories, anthologies and novels into universality through circulation, translation and production (David Damrosch; What is World Literature; P1). It is possible to clear again that Technology, internet, defines today the realm of literary studies in a very modernized way, though, it is difficult to expect from the international public that rejecting the wave of old traditions ridicules students is an essential way because following many reflections on the Internet in the context of how electronic literature functions as the society of Twenty-First Century is the new one of today; changing methods of international examinations like the  shift from TOEFL into TOEF IBT, TCF into TCF SO in order to deconstruct how the International Politics in the modern society favors the new way of living with Digitalization inasmuch as the old school of papers examinations have been disappeared from the dictionary of life and of education. It is tough to approach how Digitalization functions, forasmuch as there are severable predicaments that we must elucidate from the outset. by doing that, it  should  be  a  coherent  strategy  to  reformulate  again  this problematic question:

What are the main divergences and convergences of Digital Culture?

We have to scrutinize some elements of education to picture the international view of education in developing countries. To clarify how education and culture are extremely dominated and dominant points to each other, it is essential to show as to how Culture changed them completely through technology.


The beginning of the twenty-First Century becomes the time of rapid momentum of developing technology, spanning from the military access to the field of education, because literary enterprise has been adjusted to the extent that even archaic concepts have been misused entirely in the modern society, they have been become tools into the world of technology: “Education” was transformed into “Technological Education”, “Literature” to “Electronic Literature”, “Culture” onto “Cyber-Cultural Activism”, “Business” to “E-banking. This digital transformation has changed the way of living seeing that everything is linked to the world of the Internet. This idea is comparatively coupled with the World- Wide Information Networks of Twenty-First Century since this era is governed by Digital technologies that become as the visible enterprise for communication studies, distance learning, and discoveries. The very negative implication immensely appeared to revive the old structure of thinking, because there are countless results of refusing this old system of the 90s and 80s; unlike there being such overwhelmed thoughts that envisage this social concept of the Internet in terms of regarding differences and distances conclusions. This socio- technological impact is specifically explained to picture as to how scientists deconstruct the age of globalization:

“World-wide information networks and digital technologies are probably the most important phenomena through which the world becomes  visible, where societies can communicate, study and originate new actions in a permanent process of perceiving and discovering each other, recognizing convergences and differences, distances and approaches” P237

This situation has been describing new actions of globalization in order to lead its people to be considered as visible humans and this is the pure role of globalization, of deleting and inserting a new perspective to all societies, is that it alters language to the extent that everything is universal. The world of universalities transforms people into a new machine of one single function to only act from one simple shot or side, in that, language communication and culture have been extremely governed in this current existing simple magic formula of globalization. Henceforth, the portrait of considering globalization as the better way of living assumed to be a true image before the spanning of cultural and cross-cultural issues in the midst of the twenty-first century and this social structure changed rapidly:

“Language in globalization is an important tool which allows people to communicate among others. In the same way as the printed culture, the language becomes the universal vehicle for communication”

Needless to deny unconsciously that the importance of the English Language, with the force of technology, metamorphosed into something that we never thought of its shape and even today we are shocked by this incredibly unexpected diffusion, seeing that this direction will produce the so-called “Universal Language” that can produce many complexities that will have been lately observed in the humans actions and the way they deal with the external world of society. To say it briefly, there can be myriads of lives and humans would  be fully bored of the way it controls them, under those circumstance the description of English language is the dominant enterprise of Global Information Infrastructure which fosters many issues in cultural and cross- cultural studies to some large extent they problematize to the spot of network circulation to study specifically in the light of understanding as to how Cyberculture (Computer-Culture) affects other national languages to make progress:

“Today the dominant language for the Global Information Infrastructure is English. Could this situation be changed if more content in different languages circulates in the network? Will this produce chaos? Should we adopt English as the second language?” 238

The main argument that stimulates people on asking such questions of their unexplained images of their identities is caused primarily by the domination or the governance of Technology over humans that means the role of machine surpassed the value of humans that is one of the reason they wanted to revive the old school of life in the hope of establishing old cults that have been taken from them by the force of technology, and then they started  worrying about their national languages and traditions as if someday it will vanish once for all from this life:

“If one language is adopted as universal on the networks, will happen with local languages and cultural traits? Will nations maintain their own tongues and adopt the universal language as a surviving measure?”

Despite the importance of universality of language in the era of multilingualism, people are still bothered by the idea of integrating such native languages in the process of development, education and even technological communication, particularly (or in particular), they define it deliberately as it is an uncivilized language. In other word, they prefer establishing a foreign language rather than forcing native language to progress even multilingualism is access approach to native languages

Multilingualism without a universal language could be a huge obstacle or it could enable redefinition of society. If people do not understand each other there will be an inability to communication”

According to this realistic quotation, which depicts social obstacles of universality of misunderstood communication which is turned into a paradigm of ambiguity and this explains that people cannot communicate due to the current change of globalizing humans’ mentalities by Digital technologies as well as this oddly way of living produces the unacceptability of living without it. Nevertheless, we come to realize that Digital culture plays far- reaching advances in viewing: “Local Literature to World Literature’’, “Local Culture” to “Open-Cyber-Culture”, “Translation to International Translations”, “and Education to E-learning”. The form of native language would appear into another shape within the domination of universal language of information through positive circulation:

“We have digital culture based in a universal language, English, as people present information in this language either it is their mother tongue or it has been translated so it can reach the largest audience. At the same time, we have multilingualism as each country presents its information in its native language. The mix of languages allows information created for a specific purpose to reach its intended audience”. 238

The idea of universalizing Peoples, Literature, Histories, and Languages has never been viewed as the core argument of technology. Though technology advanced this era to the development of communication, 3D games, 3d printing tools, Robotics, and E-learning, this is not the method of developing novels or books and it is only an updated manner of dealing with E-books through technology. Before the existence of Internet, the progress of humanities has not scanned entirely by the field of cyberism, in fact it was modelled as the jarred door to search books through new technological materials, but it is analyzed through the circulation of translation that means the process of developing literature must be put into an ethnocentric (universal) culture  in that the development should be mainly reflected as transition from local culture to universal culture and then this translation passes to the world of polysystem that is definitely the mains process of progressing books ( David Damrosch).

On the top of what has been said positively concerning the role of globalization, we will shed more light on the invisible side of  globalization as to how it completely throws old practices as unnecessary tools. Furthermore, this unexpected portrait of society would lead us to survey a new pattern that contrasts with the old traditional life, since the way Globalization measures and functions is something bizarre to us:

Globalization meant throwing away old practices and adopting new ways, where, in spite of cultural differences, a similar behavior is expected”. 240

This portrayal of the twenty-first century rejects the old ways of integrating and acting that are no longer usefully available; because the notion of life is approximately linked to the notion of Digitalized culture which is interpreted  as The Complex World.


It is an obvious must to assert that without the usage of Internet people would do not have to the access of information (Google); without the use of Information Technology we would be unable to read electronic books that  were once upon time difficult tools to access; without the use of Internet we would never progress national literature, because it plays the role of marketization of literature, history, and science to be in the place around of World Literature:

“The digital culture can help Chile and other countries to reinforce their national identity by making culture visible. Contents should include public sector information, visual arts, music, literature, history, science, and technology among others”. 240

It is true that the shift from culture to the world of globalization created many social issues regarding the question of identity and the value of humans, nevertheless looking only to one simple side of negativity this text would not establish a clear image of Globalization in that we should mention the positive side of Digital Culture that open new doors to student, researchers, and scientists in the hope of considering it as the tool of researching information. Apart from this usual perspective, this era of information technology depicts a new wave of understanding education that goes ultimately with technology, and this explains such countless E-platforms that elucidate the role of technology in education. After this caravan of  raising consciousness toward using interned, there being new platforms like Coursera and Edx which made an interesting performance at the international level. The most important aspect of enrolling students in these platforms: firstly, students can follow the course, using the unpaid method. Secondly, courses are made by Professors. Thirdly, they attempt to discuss so that they create an atmosphere of diversity. Hence, the students can lead people to study autonomously and learn many things as soon as they do practicum exercises:

“either as the scaling of centralised and identical instruction to unprecedented numbers of students or the opportunity for self- directed learning, in which large participant numbers are  understood as providing the means to construct knowledge Independently of teachers and institutions” (Rodriguez, 2012, 2013)

If students prefer to study autonomously to study culturally rather than obligatory, most of them enroll into great courses demanding unpaid method of learning, nonetheless, in the end, they do not even complete the required tests in such a way to earn his certificate. The hinged reason behind that is: most of the networkers wanted (tense) to know this new world of platforms and when they embark into such educational courses and then they find themselves with no way to cope up with the suggested, not given, courses. According to Edx and Coursera, most of the students wanted to get a free certificate with the unpaid method, so it gives them access to it, but they want it without doing the homework. What is bizarre is the most of students had taken the opportunity to buy their certificates without doing their tests and the reason behind that:

Huge enrolment numbers are also central to the promotional videos released by EdX (2013), suggesting “imagine taking a class with a hundred thousand or more students.” Two further videos claim that edX’s ambition is to enroll a billion students from around the world (edX, 2012a, 2012b).

It is important though to visualize the ambition of Coursera and Edx that is about to create something which original that has not been done before in the event that people would be extremely attracted to the so-called E-leaning Access. Prior to what it offers as courses to the international students, the purpose of creating all these platforms - aims only to achieve a huge number of student if they can be recognized internationally as the best platforms and the way of universalizing this education – was also to offer education through unpaid methods as well as this attracted huge members from all over the world to glimpse on Coursera and EdX. This strategy assumingly foreshadows Platformers success, and the most important report of Coursera elucidates that it has dynamically updated its progression to surpass the level 5 million and then it affirms that it reaches more than 6 million followers (Coursera ,2014)

This descriptive model of educating people would bring us into another similar point of understanding how such international exam changed completely from the format of Paper-based examination to E-examination. The role of globalization wants to universalize everything and even tests of languages. This transition becomes very obvious at the international level; for example, the transition of TOEFL into TOEFL IBT, CAMBRIDGE EXAMS into E-CAMBRIDGE, and TCF Paper exam into TCF SO. The most important aspect of using the Internet as a source of examination: controlling the examiner from cheating that means the mode of securitization is an essential unit. The E-examinations are newly updated paradigms of this universal society through which the educators are acting against the traditional system of education. The student of the twenty-first century coped with the use of the Internet and favored the current use of examination because culture becomes the realm  of Digitalism:

“As emphasized in the book’s introduction, which is intended to frame the themes and main discussion of the collection, the reality of “digital divergence” in a global environment (as opposed to the concept of the“digital divide”) is that digital systems will become more and more different over time. Whereas the term “digital divide” suggests intractable, binary opposition between the haves and the have-nots, “digital divergence” predicts complexity and difference.”

One of the most striking features of Digital culture is that it can be considered negatively and positively because it presents the reality of a global environment that is difficult to understand to the extent that we have a clear notion of security within societies. Attempting to heighten on the current issues of globalization, we, as researchers, at Faculty Pluridisciplinary of Nador,  must exclusively focus on the unsaid problem of securitization. The idea of providing this securitization is one hand verily a truthful point view, nonetheless, from another perspective, E-examinations are immensely regarded as the new way of progressing Business. Therefore, every positive point exposes us to the negativity of E that endorses myriads questions of public opinions. Concisely, the conception of looking to Digital Culture regarding  conformity, happiness , and realization is elucidated before, albeit the unvoiced issues of today are: Whether globalization acts exclusively to achieve particular goals? Or it feverishly ponders on changing everything to accommodate Digitalization for the purpose of colonizing humans’ minds. Furthermore, this is mentioned in the entitled books of Complex words which painstakingly elucidate the reality of digital culture.


It has been universally approached that Digital Culture modified literature, communication to be on the verge of globalization and universalization and to throw away useless traditions and unnecessary entities from the outdated context of society. Chiefly, it is true that this geographical image is somehow unacceptable. In spite of how digitalization alters new paradigms to act positively on its side to produce another history of technology; in spite of why Digital communication globalizes humans mentalities to overly speak only English language; in spite of when the world of complexities would end, this image of technology has truly dominated us, and it continues to exclusively separate E-humans from the real humans in the very near future. Nevertheless, in view of not losing cultural identity and of not forgetting the old tradition of our grandfathers, literature or Electronic literature is always the same border of getting to humans to see the history of letters that existed once upon a time. The perplexing problems of today are to perceive and to foreshadow as to when this globalization goes on and as to when it can stop excluding old tradition and replacing them with new ways of technology. As we see the darkest side of Internet as the model of exploiting old mentalities to cope up with the new  ones in term of adaptability, it is reassuringly better to search useful information through the internet that help students or general people follow the mainly positive side of Digital culture that connects us with the atmosphere of positivity .


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